The conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) commanded by General Abdel Fattah al Burhan and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) headed by General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo has thrown into turmoil a region that was already straining under record levels of humanitarian stresses. Even prior to the outbreak of conflict in Sudan, there were more than 13 million people in Sudan and its 7 neighbors who were refugees or internally displaced (IDP). More than 40 million people in these countries were facing acute food insecurity. Resources to assist these populations will now be even further stretched.
“Each of Sudan’s neighbors is currently or was recently struggling with their own conflict or political instability.”
This reality underscores that each of Sudan’s neighbors is currently or was recently struggling with their own conflict or political instability. It also highlights the compounding effects that each of the region’s crises are having on one another.
Sudan had already been hosting over 1.1 million refugees from its neighbors, as well as almost 3.8 million of its own internally displaced (out of a population of 45 million). Almost 30 percent of the refugees in Sudan were living in Khartoum and are now trying to evade the fighting there. The majority of IDPs (79 percent) were in camps in Darfur in the west of the country, which has been a renewed focal point of conflict and further displacement. According to UNHCR, security is rapidly deteriorating in parts of Darfur, with reports of malnutrition and measles outbreaks amid a lack of basic goods such as food and water. In West Darfur, there has been a pattern of atrocities committed by Arab militias backed by the RSF, primarily targeting men from the Masalit community. At least 1,000 and possibly as many as 10,000 civilians have been killed in the targeted attacks.
Since the Sudan conflict erupted, UN agencies estimate that almost 6.1 million people have been internally displaced and more than 1.7 million have fled to Egypt, Chad, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Libya, and Central African Republic (CAR)—countries that are facing their own stressors. These figures are surely an undercount as humanitarian access and communications with much of the country have been cut. The UN estimates that 25 million people (roughly half the population) are in need of assistance.
Egypt has been a major route for Sudanese refugees escaping from Khartoum. So far, it has received 415,000 people, mostly Sudanese, according to UNHCR. These numbers are expected to increase as a large number of Sudanese remain stranded at the border. Egypt is a major transit and destination point for migrants leaving hardship elsewhere in Africa, hosting nearly 9 million economic migrants. Egypt has been engaged in a prolonged dispute with Ethiopia over management of Nile River water access stemming from the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), further adding to regional tensions.
“Chad has almost 400,000 IDPs due to its own instability. With a long legacy of autocracy under Idriss Déby, Chad has faced perpetual instability.”
Almost 635,000 people, mostly Sudanese, have already crossed the border into Chad and tens of thousands more are expected as increasing lawlessness has been reported in Darfur. Chad had already been hosting almost 600,000 refugees, 400,000 of which are from Sudan’s Darfur region. In addition, Chad has almost 400,000 IDPs due to its own instability. With a long legacy of autocracy under Idriss Déby, Chad has faced perpetual instability. When Déby was killed in battle with an armed opposition group in 2021, the military bypassed the constitutionally mandated succession plan and installed his son, General Mahamat Idriss Déby, as president. Violent crackdowns against peaceful protesters calling for a restoration of constitutional order in October 2022 have generated another wave of refugees and internally displaced from this strategically important Sahelian country linking West, North, East, and Central Africa.
An estimated 425,000 South Sudanese refugees are reported to have crossed back into South Sudan, along with some Sudanese (102,000) and migrants and refugees from other countries (4,000). For most of its 10 years of existence, South Sudan has been in a civil war. More than a third of the population has been forcibly displaced—2.2 million as IDPs and 2.3 million as refugees. About 810,000 had fled to Sudan. Of the remaining 8 million South Sudanese in country, 7.8 million are facing acute food insecurity including 43,000 facing famine—virtually all of which is attributed to conflict. South Sudan remains in a state of persistent crisis.
Host of the third largest community of refugees in the region (after Uganda and Sudan) with almost 900,000, Ethiopia has since 2020 been embroiled in internal conflict, primarily involving the Tigray region, which borders Sudan. The number of internally displaced in Ethiopia is around 3 million, though accurate figures (particularly for the Tigray region) are not available. An estimated 20 million Ethiopians are facing acute food insecurity. Ethiopian refugees in neighboring countries total close to 150,000. This includes many Tigrayans who had fled to Sudan when the Ethiopian conflict started in November 2020. Since the escalation in clashes in Sudan, Ethiopians have made up the majority of the 106,000 people who have crossed into Ethiopia.
“Almost half of CAR is facing acute food insecurity primarily due to conflict.”
More than 5,700 people have managed to cross the remote Libya border. Libya has long been a key transit country for migrants and refugees fleeing conflicts and repression from the western Sahel and other parts of Africa. An estimated 704,369 migrants are in Libya, many of whom are subject to abuse by human traffickers. Libya has also been facing an extended political conflict as militias linked to the eastern-based warlord, Khalifa Haftar, have repeatedly tried to undermine and overthrow the UN-backed government in Tripoli.
There are few, if any, Sudanese refugees fleeing to Eritrea, which is itself a major country of origin. Nevertheless, unconfirmed reports suggest that maybe as many as 3,500 Eritreans were forcibly repatriated to Eritrea. More than 336,000 Eritreans have escaped the country of 3.6 million. Forced military conscription, arbitrary arrests, disappearances, and torture are among the many abuses against its citizens attributed to the Eritrean government by the UN. Eritrea was also a combatant in the neighboring Tigray region’s conflict with the government of Ethiopia.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Conflict Remains the Dominant Driver of Africa’s Spiraling Food Crisis,” Infographic, October 14, 2022.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Record 36 Million Africans Forcibly Displaced,” Infographic, July 19 2022.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Autocracy and Instability in Africa,” Infographic, March 9, 2021.
- Wendy Williams, “Shifting Borders: Africa’s Displacement Crisis and Its Security Implications,” Research Paper No. 8, Africa Center for Strategic Studies, 2019.