Sudan

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A collection of the Africa Center’s analyses of Sudan’s transition and its imperative for security sector reform.

Interview

Ending Conflict in Sudan is Crucial for Regional Stability

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
May 18, 2023

The longer the conflict in Sudan endures, the greater the likelihood that regional actors will sponsor rival proxy forces, accelerating the fragmentation of the armed actors on the ground and fueling a spillover of the conflict into an already highly fragile regional environment.

Interview

Role of External Actors in Resolving Sudan Conflict

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
May 18, 2023

The power struggle between rival generals in Sudan will require international mediation to resolve. Yet, this will necessitate navigating often competing regional interests and differing objectives.

Infographic

Sudan Conflict Straining Fragility of Its Neighbors

May 2, 2023

The conflict between Sudan’s rival military factions is triggering massive population displacements that are stressing the region’s already fragile coping systems. More than 6 million people have been internally displaced and almost 1.7 million have fled the country.

Financial Interests Driving Sudan’s Generals

Interview

Financial Interests Driving Sudan’s Generals

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
April 19, 2023

Sudan’s warring generals are each supported by a network of financial interests. These revenues are funding the conflict, provide incentives for each side to keep fighting, and are an ongoing obstacle to Sudan’s democratic transition. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Africa News Tonight.

Interview

Possible End-Games in Sudan

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
April 19, 2023

The convulsions facing Sudan as a result of fighting between rival generals underscore the untenability of military government. Any viable end game to the current crisis, therefore, must entail the restoration of a civilian democratic government and the depoliticization of Sudan’s military actors. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Africa News Tonight.

Interview

Sudan Conflict Requires Civilian Engagement

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
April 18, 2023

Sudan has endured a military government for the past three decades leading to economic contraction, hyperinflation, and now conflict. The enduring lack of legitimacy, distrust by the population, and need for international investment to stabilize Sudan's economy makes the continuation of any form of military government in Sudan an untenable option. Sudanese civilian and civil society leaders, meanwhile, have demonstrated resiliency and have put forward a pathway for transitioning away from conflict and toward democracy. The Sudan crisis will not be resolved by military actors, therefore, but will require civilian engagement supported by international actors.

Background to the Sudan Crisis

Interview

Background to the Sudan Crisis

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
April 18, 2023

The crisis in Sudan has been a long time in coming with rival generals repeatedly undermining the country’s democratic transition in pursuit of their political interests. In the process, they have stymied the democratic aspirations of millions of Sudanese, deepened the country’s economic contraction, and heightened Sudan’s vulnerability to the influence of malign external actors. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Africa News Tonight.

Civilians Call for Sudan’s Military Leaders to Step Down

Interview

Civilians Call for Sudan’s Military Leaders to Step Down

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
February 26, 2023

Civilian leaders and democracy protesters remain skeptical of both sides of Sudan’s military rivalry, which civilians attribute to military actors attempting to hang onto power at all costs. The escalating tensions between the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) reveal competing interests, chains of command, and organizational structures. An eruption of fighting between the two military camps could plunge the country into a civil war similar to what we have seen in South Sudan. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Nightline.

Escalating Tensions within Sudan’s Military Government

Interview

Escalating Tensions within Sudan’s Military Government

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
February 25, 2023

A split within the leadership of Sudan’s military government highlights growing fissures over the military coup, reintroduction of Islamists into senior government positions, and the rebuilding of the political bloc of former dictator Omar al-Bashir. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Nightline.

Sudanese Protest on Coup Anniversary

Interview

Sudanese Protest on Coup Anniversary

By Joseph Siegle with Voice of America
October 27, 2022

Sudanese remains adamant in their call for a democratic transition in line with the 2019 revolution that toppled Omar al-Bashir after 30 years in power. Civilian protesters have demonstrated impressive resiliency in maintaining demonstrations despite repressive tactics by the military government. Demand for political change goes hand-in-hand with persistent economic mismanagement by the military government resulting in hyperinflation, difficulty accessing basic supplies, and record levels of debt. Joseph Siegle talks to VOA's Africa News Tonight.

Spotlight

What the Post-Coup Agreement Means for Sudan’s Democratic Transition

By Joseph Siegle
November 24, 2021

Sudan’s democratic transition is under duress as the military seeks validation for its hold on power via the reinstatement of a figurehead civilian prime minister.

The Sudanese Military’s Interests in Civilian Rule

Spotlight

The Sudanese Military’s Interests in Civilian Rule

By Joseph Siegle
March 23, 2021

Proactive management of the transition to civilian rule would afford the Sudanese military more stability, budgetary support, and professional benefits.

Sudan military in 2019

Spotlight

Reforming the Security Sector in Sudan: The Need for a Framework

By Luka Biong D. Kuol
November 2, 2020

Sudan needs a national security strategy to guide the reforms of its security sector from a tool of repression to sustain the old regime to a professional force that protects citizens under a democratic system.

Spotlight

Five Things to Watch in Sudan’s Transition

April 12, 2019

Transforming the protests into genuine democratic change in Sudan will require maintaining an organized reform coalition and reaching an understanding with military leaders.

Omar al Bashir

Spotlight

Sudan’s Shifting Calculus of Power

By Luka Kuol
March 11, 2019

Omar al Bashir’s emergency declaration aims to consolidate support within the military while popular protests continue to demand change.

Understanding the Significance of the Protests in Sudan

Spotlight

Understanding the Significance of the Protests in Sudan

January 28, 2019

With Sudanese President Omar al Bashir facing unprecedented pressure from a diverse collection of protesters and political parties, mediation is needed to avoid a violent escalation.