ARP No. 6: Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa

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By Émile Ouédraogo

December 26, 2019

  1. Camille Dubruelh and Mathieu Olivier, « L’Afrique n’est plus seulement un acteur passif dans le trafic de drogue. La consommation augmente. » Jeune Afrique, April 24, 2012. Adam Nossiter, “U.S. Sting That Snared African Ex-Admiral Shines Light on Drug Trade,” The New York Times, April 15, 2013.
  2. “Nigeria: Massive Destruction, Deaths from Military Raid,” Human Rights Watch, May 1, 2013.
  3. Jeffrey Gettleman, “Elephants Dying in Epic Frenzy as Ivory Fuels Wars and Profits,” The New York Times, September 3, 2012.
  4. Daniel Howden, “Terror in Nairobi: The Full Story Behind al-Shabaab’s Attack,” The Guardian, October 4, 2013.
  5. Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002).
  6. Zoltan Barany, The Soldier and the Changing State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012), 1.
  7. Habiba Ben Barka and Mthuli Ncube, “Political Fragility in Africa: Are Military Coups d’Etat a Never-Ending Phenomenon?” African Development Bank (September 2012), 3.
  8. Stefan Lindemann, “The Ethnic Politics of Coup Avoidance: Evidence from Zambia and Uganda,” Africa Spectrum 46, No. 2 (2011), 4. For background on datasets used by Lindemann and other authors to identify the number of coups, see Jonathan M. Powell & Clayton L. Thyne, “Global instances of coups from 1950 to 2010: A new dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 48, No. 2 (2011), 249-259. Powell and Thyne identify the varying definitions of “coup d’état” to explain for the variances in reported instances of attempted and successful coups.
  9. Barka and Ncube, “Political Fragility in Africa,” 4.
  10. Ibid., 9.
  11. Mathurin Houngnikpo, Africa’s Militaries: A Missing Link in Democratic Transitions, Africa Security Brief No. 17 (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, January 2012).
  12. Barka and Ncube, “Political Fragility in Africa,” 9.
  13. Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968).
  14. Rafael Marques de Morais, “The Angolan Presidency: The Epicentre of Corruption,” Pambazuka News No. 493, August 5, 2010.
  15. Emmanuel O. Ojo, “Taming the Monster: Demilitarization and Democratization in Nigeria,” Armed Forces & Society 32, No. 2 (January 2006), 254-272.
  16. Plato, The Republic, tr. G.M.A. Grube (Hacket, 1992), 417b and 434a-b.
  17. “Above the State: The Officers’ Republic in Egypt,” Carnegie Middle East Center, August 1, 2012.
  18. Zeinab Abul-Magd, “The Army and The Economy in Egypt,” Jadaliyya, December 23, 2011.
  19. David D. Kirkpatrick, “Egyptians Say Military Discourages an Open Economy,” The New York Times, February 17, 2011.
  20. Yezid Sayigh, “Morsi and Egypt’s Military,” Al-Monitor, January 8, 2013. Under the 2014 constitution created after the military ousted Morsi, the NDC has 14 members of which 8 are military.
  21. Kirkpatrick, “Egyptians Say Military Discourages an Open Democracy.”
  22. Erin Cunningham, “Egyptian Authorities Detain Thousands Amid Crackdown on Dissent,” The Washington Post, March 10, 2014.
  23. Abigail Hauslohner, “Egypt’s Military Expands Its Control of the Country’s Economy,” The Washington Post, March 16, 2014.
  24. Dan Henk, “The Botswana Defence Force: Evolution of a Professional African Military,” African Security Review 13, No. 4 (2004), 92.
  25. Ibid., 98.
  26. Boubacar N’Diaye, “Mauritania,” in Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa: Realities and Opportunities, eds. Alan Bryden and Boubacar N’Diaye (Geneva: Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), September 2011), 152-153.
  27. Comi M. Toulabor, “Togo”, in Ibid., 232.
  28. Stefan Lindemann, “Civilian Control of the Military in Tanzania and Zambia: Explaining Persistent Exceptionalism,” Crisis States Working Papers Series No. 2 (London: Crisis States Research Centre, 2010), 3.
  29. 29 Barany, Soldier and the Changing State, 276.
  30. Ibid., 288.
  31. Lindemann, “Civilian Control of the Military,” 12.
  32. Cyrus Samii, “Perils or Promise of Ethnic Integration? Evidence from a Hard Case in Burundi,” American Political Science Review 107, No. 3 (August 2013).
  33. Midterm Report from the Group of Experts on Côte d’Ivoire prepared in accordance with paragraph 16 of Security Council resolution 2045 (2012). United Nations (S /2012/766), October 15, 2012.
  34. Library of Congress Country Studies, Ivory Coast – Chapter 1, Historical Setting – Consolidation of Power in the 1960s and 1970s, Library of Congress Call Number DT545.22 .C66 1990.
  35. Raphaël Ouattara, “Côte d’Ivoire,” in Bryden and N’Diaye, Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa, 74.
  36. “Guinea: Victims of Security Forces Crackdown,” Situation Report No. 3, UN Office for the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs, October 18, 2009.
  37. Adam Nossiter, “Bodies Pour In as Nigeria Hunts for Islamists,” The New York Times, May 7, 2013. See also, John Campbell and Asch Harwood, “What’s Behind Nigeria’s Escalating Bodycount?” The Atlantic, May 21, 2013.
  38. “Freedom in the World Report, Burkina Faso,” Freedom House, 2013.
  39. “Military Barracks in Disrepair Despite N12 Billion 2012 Budget,” Daily Trust, March 18, 2013.
  40. Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index 2013 (London: Transparency International UK Defence and Security Programme, 2013).
  41. Bribery in Public Procurement: Methods, Actors and Counter-Measures (Paris: OECD, 2007), 47.
  42. Herbert M. Howe, Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States (Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Pub., 2005), 55.
  43. Ibid., 55.
  44. Rawings Otini, “Kenya Among Africa’s Top Spenders on Military,” Business Daily, November 1, 2012.
  45. Kwesi Aning, “Ghana,” in Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector in West Africa, eds. Adedeji Ebo and Boubacar N’Diaye (Geneva: DCAF, 2008), 131.
  46. Toulabor, “Togo,” 232.
  47. Wuyi Omitoogun and Eboe Hutchful, Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa: The Processes and Mechanisms of Control, SIPRI (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 167.
  48. Daniel W. Henk and Martin Revayi Rupiya, Funding Defense: Challenges of Buying Military Capability in Sub-Saharan Africa (Carlysle: Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), September 2001), 19.
  49. Laurent Touchard, “Les 7 Péchés Capitaux,” Jeune Afrique No. 2709 (December 9-15, 2012), 30.
  50. “The Rise and Rise of Museveni’s Son – Brigadier Muhoozi Kainerugaba,”, August 29, 2012.
  51. Augustus Vogel, Navies versus Coast Guards: Defining the Roles of African Maritime Security Forces, Africa Security Brief No. 2 (Washington DC: National Defense University Press, December 2009), 3.
  52. Leon Engelbrecht, “African Navies Declining,” defenseWeb, January 20, 2010.
  53. Patrick Smith, “Africa’s Armies: Facing Down Disorder,” The Africa Report No. 49 (April 2013), 25.
  54. “Building Integrity and Countering Corruption in Defence & Security: 20 Practical Reforms,” Transparency International (February 2011), 12.
  55. Adam Nossiter, “The Whiff of Conflict Grows in Mali,” The New York Times, October 24, 2012.
  56. Jeffrey Gettleman, “The World’s Worst War,” The New York Times, December 25, 2012.
  57. Davin O’Regan and Peter Thompson, Advancing Stability and Reconciliation in Guinea-Bissau: Lessons from Africa’s First Narco-State, Africa Center Special Report No. 2 (Washington DC: National Defense University Press, June 2013).
  58. Wolfram Lacher, Organized Crime and Conflict in the Sahel-Sahara Region, The Carnegie Papers (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, September 2012).
  59. Ibid.
  60. Andrew Lebovich, “Mali’s Bad Trip: ‘Air Cocaine,’ Al-Qaeda, and West African Drug Trade,” Foreign Policy, March 15, 2013.
  61. Andrew Cottey, Timothy Edmunds, and Anthony Forster, “The Second Generation Problematic: Rethinking Democracy and Civil-Military Relations,” Armed Forces & Society 29, No. 1 (Sep. 2002), 34 (citing Stanisław Andrzejewski, 1954).
  62. Helmoed Heitman, Optimizing Africa’s Security Force Structures, Africa Security Brief No. 13 (Washington DC: National Defense University Press, May 2011).
  63. Khabele Matlosa, “From a destabilizing factor to a depoliticized and professional force: the military in Lesotho,” in Evolutions & and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ed. Martin Rupiya (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2005), 85-110.
  64. Barany, Soldier and the Changing State, 355-356.
  65. Ghana Armed Forces Internal Operations, Ghana Armed Forces website.
  66. Kwame Asare Boadu, “Forestry Commission Inaugurates Armed Forest Guards,” Daily Graphic, April 3, 2012.
  67. “Senegal’s Armée-Nation: Lessons Learned from an Indigenous Model for Building Peace, Stability and Effective Civil-Military Relations in West Africa,” Partners for Democratic Change.
  68. Narcís Serra, The Military Transition: Democratic Reform of the Armed Forces, tr. by Peter Bush (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) 86.
  69. Barany, Soldier and the Changing State, 356.
  70. Heitman, Optimizing Africa’s Security Force Structures, 3.
  71. Barany, Soldier and the Changing State, 326.
  72. Abel Esterhuyse, “Educating for Professionalism: A New Military for a New South Africa,” South African Journal of Military Studies 34, No. 2 (2006), 25.
  73. Samii, “Perils or Promise of Ethnic Integration?” 558-573.
  74. Liza E.A. Briggs, “Civilian and Enlisted Perspectives on the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL): A Qualitative Research Study Report,” AFRICOM Directorate of Intelligence and Knowledge Development (October 2010).
  75. “Building Integrity and Countering Corruption,” 2011, 24.
  76. Mindia Vashakmadze, Guidebook: Understanding Military Justice (Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), 2010), 9. Military Justice Legislation Model, Republic of South Africa, Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act, 1999 (Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), 2010).
  77. Barany, Soldier and the Changing State, 350.
  78. Matlosa, 2005, 85-110.
  79. Esterhuyse, “Educating for Professionalism,” 25.
  80. Matlosa, 2005, 87.
  81. “President Signs Freedom of Information Law,” International Freedom of Expression Exchange Clearing House, October 6, 2010.
  82. Briggs, “Civilian and Enlisted Perspectives”.
  83. Ibid., 12.
  84. Mohamed Yahya Ould Abdel Wedoud, “Mauritania Decriminalises Press Offences,” Magharebia, July 1, 2011.
  85. “Reality of the Freedom of Information Act,” Daily Trust, September 17, 2012.
  86. Raymond Louw, “Protection of State Information Bill Passed by South African Parliament,” IPI, May 3, 2013. David Smith, “South Africa Secrecy Law Surprise as Zuma Rejects Controversial Bill,” The Guardian, September 12, 2013.
  87. Arne Willy Dahl, “International Trends in Military Justice,” (presentation at the Global Military Appellate Seminar at Yale Law School, New Haven, CT, April 1-2, 2011).
  88. Danielle Skinner, “Armed Forces of Liberia’s Military Justice System Focuses on Human Rights and Discipline,” US AFRICOM, May 16, 2011.
  89. “Building Integrity and Countering Corruption,” 2011, 22.
  90. Ibid., 33.
  91. “Military Ombudsmen,” Backgrounder: Security Sector Governance and Reform Series (Geneva: DCAF, March 2006).
  92. Ben Magahy, Dominic Scott, and Mark Pyman, Defence Corruption Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of Data Relating Corruption in Defence Establishments to Development Outcomes (London: Transparency International, 2009), 26 (citing Gupta, et al., 2000:15).

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