While Africa has seen a broad decline in conflict in the years since the end of the Cold War, that trend has reversed in recent years, largely as a result of increased non-state conflict. This upsurge is characterized by religious elements, the direct targeting of civilians, and environmental pressures, as well as regional concentrations. Just six countries account for 85 percent of non-state conflict in Africa: Sudan, South Sudan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Paul Williams, Phillip Carter, and Ibrahim Wani provided insights and analysis at a roundtable hosted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies as part of its 2016 Next Generation of African Security Sector Leaders academic program.
- Abdisaid M. Ali, “Islamist Extremism in East Africa,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Africa Security Brief No. 32, August 2016.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Map: Overlapping Effects of Autocracy and Conflict in Africa,” Spotlight, September 2016.
- Paul D. Williams, “Peace Operations in Africa: Lessons Learned since 2000,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Africa Security Brief No. 25, July 2013.
- Stephen Commins, “Urban Fragility and Security in Africa,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Africa Security Brief No. 12, April 2011.
- Zachary Devlin-Foltz, “Africa’s Fragile States: Empowering Extremists, Exporting Terrorism,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Africa Security Brief No. 6, August 2010.
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