Record levels of forced displacement and migration in Africa affecting tens of millions of people are one of the defining challenges facing the continent. How these are addressed will shape Africa’s development and security environment for the 21st century. This surge in population movements is not inevitable, however. Measures can be taken to mitigate the negative effects. The vast majority of this displacement originates from a select few African countries experiencing repressive governance and conflict. Targeting the drivers in these countries will require greater initiative from across the diplomatic, security, and private sectors—in Africa and among international partners. While structural challenges such as population growth and environmental change will require longer term solutions, much can be done to address the short- and medium-term issues by incentivizing better governance and giving higher regional and international priority to negotiating resolutions to ongoing internal conflicts causing the largest surge of displacement.