Tunisia is facing a constitutional crisis rooted in challenges to the separation of powers and the reach of executive authority. The outcome has implications not only for Tunisia but prospects for democracy across North Africa.
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Ethiopia’s decision to build the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in 2011 triggered a three-way dispute between Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan that remains unresolved. Settling the dispute before the dam comes online is critical for mitigating the risk for future conflict. Nile basin countries can take a number of trust-building measures to reduce mutual suspicion. In the short term, the three countries should reach an agreement on how quickly Ethiopia will fill the dam’s reservoir. In the long-term, negotiating a comprehensive transboundary resource management agreement could provide a lasting framework for resource sharing.
Over the past two years, it has become increasingly clear that undermining the Arusha Accords, once hailed as Burundi’s best chance for peace, is a key objective of the Nkurunziza government.
The vast majority of African refugees are hosted by neighboring countries, highlighting the regional costs of conflict and political instability.
Burundi’s SSD program proactively addresses the politics of reform at the policy and operational levels, and can inform other African SSR initiatives.
Despite numerous peace agreements, Africa’s Great Lakes region has been in a persistent state of conflict for the past two decades. The contributions and shortcomings of some of the most significant previous peace initiatives, however, offer vital lessons as to how to mitigate the local level tensions, national political dynamics, and competing regional interests that have led to recurring outbreaks of violence.