Virtual Academic Program
June 8–30, 2021
Session 1 | June 8, 2021
Keynote Address: Adaptive Leadership: Why It Matters in Times of Uncertainty
- H. E. Olusegun Obasanjo
- Ms. Michelle Ndiaye
- Examine the role of adaptive leadership in volatile and uncertain security environment and crisis.
- Discuss the core institutional and personal attributes that would make leaders in security sector to effectively adapt to uncertain security environment and respond proactively and iteratively, e.g., anticipation, articulation, adaptation, accountability.
- Share how such attributes of adaptive leadership could be acquired by security sector leaders.
- In what ways are the principles of adaptive leadership relevant to African security sector actors and the complex environment in which they operate?
- What are some of the examples where African security sector leaders have incorporated the concept of adaptive leadership in how their organizations and / or countries operate?
- In an environment of state fragility or vulnerability, which faces many African countries, how can the concept of adaptive leadership help in the building effective security organizations?
- Are there acquired skills that make leaders more effective in deploying adaptive leadership style in performance of their responsibilities?
- Ben Ramalingam, David Nabarro, Arkebe Oqubay, Dame Ruth Carnall, and Leni Wild, “5 Principles to Guide Adaptive Leadership,” Harvard Business Review, September 11, 2020.
- Ronald Heifetz and Marty Linsky, “A Survival Guide for Leaders,” Harvard Business Review, June 2002.
- Matt Andrews, “Is it possible to escape the ‘public policy futility’ trap?” Harvard Kennedy School,” Building State Capability Blog.
Session 2 | June 15 2021
Anticipating Unexpected Security Challenges and Crises
- H.E. Ms. Kamissa Camara
- Dr. Mehari Taddele Maru
- Examine how institutions and leaders anticipate trends (e.g., megatrends such as climate change, population growth, technological innovation, migration, urbanization, pandemics etc.) and patterns that may result in dynamic changes to the security landscape.
- Discuss ways in which the development of the National Security Strategy can serve as a tool for anticipating the unexpected threats in the security sector.
- Discuss the need for developing inclusive and centralized foresight capabilities that are guided by a proactive forward-looking approach to anticipate the unexpected crises in security sector.
- What major security crises have faced your country recently? Do you think these crises were adequately anticipated and proactively planned for?
- How are security challenges identified, anticipated, and prioritized by your government?
- What kinds of unexpected security threats do you think would be likely to face your country?
- Is there a foresight capabilities system developed to anticipate the unexpected crises in security sector in your country?
- How can a national security strategy help to anticipate and prioritize future security threats in your country?
- “Section 1: Key Aspects of National Security Strategy Development,” Security Strategy Development Toolkit, Africa Center for Strategic Studies, January 2021.
- Jakkie Cilliers, “Violence in Africa: trends, drivers and prospects to 2023,” Institute for Security Studies, August 2018.
- Raymond Gilpin, “Unpacking the implications of future trends for security in Africa,” Brookings, February 3, 2020.
- “Report of the UN Economist Network for the UN 75th Anniversary Shaping the Trends of Our Time,” September 2020.
- Mark Shaw, “Africa’s Changing Place in the Global Criminal Economy,” ENACT
Continental Report 1, September 2017.
- Sharkdam Wapmuk and Oluwatooni Akinkwotu, “The Dynamics of Africa in World Affairs: From Afro-Pessimism to Afro-Optimism?” Brazilian Journal of African Studies, 2, 4 (July-Dec 2017): 11-29.
Session 3 | June 22, 2021
Responding to Unexpected Security Challenges and Crises
- Lieutenant General Birame Diop
- Dr. Fairlie Chappuis
- Examine why some leaders succeed in responding effectively to volatile and uncertain security environments.
- Examine challenges and opportunities that adaptive leadership can offer to proactively confront unknown and unexpected security threats.
- Discuss how National Security Strategy development can serve as a practical tool for addressing unexpected threats.
- Share lessons learned from leaders’ past responses to unexpected security challenges like terrorist attacks, economic shocks, riots, and popular protests and pandemics.
- What is the experience of your country in approving and adopting the NSS
- Can you share your experience of an unexpected security crisis that recently faced your country? How it was responded to and what was the role of government leaders?
- What do you think could have been done differently in responding to and addressing this unexpected security crisis?
- What elements of adaptive leadership can you identify in the response, or do you think could have helped to better respond to this challenge?
- How might having a national security strategy give leaders an advantage in dealing effectively with unforeseen security challenges?
- “Section 1: Key Aspects of National Security Strategy Development,” National Security Strategy Development Toolkit, Africa Center for Strategic Studies, January 2021.
- NSSD Case Studies: Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria.
- “Understanding Democratic Control and Oversight of the Security Sector,” in in Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance, DCAF, 2015, pp. 15-20.
Session 4 | June 29, 2021
Leveraging Partnerships in Responding to Unexpected Security Challenges
- Ambassador Fatima K. Mohammed
- Ambassador (ret.). Phillip Carter III
- Examine the importance of partnership and collective action in mobilizing and coordinating responses to unexpected security challenges and crises.
- Share lessons learned from Ebola and COVID-19, as well as more traditional security challenges such as the exponential rise of violent extremism, transnational organized crime and climate change, for leaders to leverage partnership and improve aid coordination in response to unexpected security threats and crisis.
- Discuss why some countries and regions were more successful than others in leveraging partnerships and external assistance to mitigate these complex challenges.
- Can you share the experience of an unexpected security crisis faced by your country; what was the role of external actors (African and non-African actors) in supporting the national response to this crisis? How important was the role of external actors and why?
- Can you identify an example of an externally sponsored security engagement or exercise that did not align with your country’s needs at that time? What was the result? How might that opportunity for partnership have been better used to meet national priorities?
- How can African countries make the best out of their partnerships with external actors to respond to unanticipated security challenges? How can adaptive leaders leverage partnership, mobilize and align external support to national strategic security interests and vision?
- The NSSD Toolkit: Phase 7, Pages: 40-42.
- Ben Ramalingam, David Nabarro, Arkebe Oqubay, Dame Ruth Carnall, and Leni Wild, “5 Principles to Guide Adaptive Leadership,” Harvard Business Review, September 11.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Africa’s Varied COVID Landscapes,” July 13, 2020.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Analyzing Africa’s Second Wave of COVID-19,” January 5,2021.
- African Union and Africa Center for Disease Control, “African Joint Continental Strategy for COVID-19 Outbreak,” 5 March 2020.
- Bernard Harborne, W. Dorotinsky, & Paul Bisca, (Eds.). (2017). “Securing Development: Public Finance and the Security Sector,” World Bank Publications, pages: 1-12.