Four years after the fall of Muammar Qadhafi, Libya remains volatile. Internal and external actors have pushed varied, divergent agendas, and the country has been unable to form a unified political system. The anarchy has had troubling implications for regional rule of law, cross-Mediterranean immigration, energy infrastructure and supply, and terrorism. Criminal and violent extremist groups have flourished and begun to monopolize black market activities. If their economic control hardens, it may persist beyond the eventual formation of a government and make a Libyan government more difficult to finance and stabilize in the long run.