The Nduma Defence of Congo (NDC) and its offshoot, the NDC-Renove (NCD-R), are among the oldest armed groups in Eastern Congo, one of more than a hundred that operate in the region. After its 2008 creation, it grew into the group with the largest territorial control in the region. The NDC eventually served as a proxy for Congolese and Rwandan forces, notably in fighting the FDLR. It also set up governance structures, including taxation systems, a police force, and means to control mining revenues and trade. These security governance structures will need to be purged of corrupt leaders and patronage networks.