Security Sector Reform

  • Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index 2013

    Say No to CorruptionTransparency International Defence and Security Programme, 2013. African states rank among the weakest in terms of their control of corruption in the security sector, which diminishes public trust in government and threatens national and regional security. Most states in Africa lack basic provisions for legislative oversight of the defense sector, budgets are rarely made public, and engagement with civil society is rare. African states must improve oversight of the defense sector and reduce the secrecy of defense budgets and policymaking so as to better meet the complex security challenges they face.

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    [Photo credit: Lars Ploughmann]
  • How to Build Democratic Armies

    DRC national armyBy Zoltan Barany. PRISM, August 2012. A crucial determinant of the viability and sustainability of any democratic transition is whether the armed forces learn to abide by democratic norms and governance structures. States that have managed to successfully build democratic armies have tended to prioritize strategic reforms and gradual progress. This is typically forged through compromise with military leaders, a clear and unambiguous governance framework that depoliticizes the military, legislative oversight, civilian participation in security policymaking, and robust training activities and missions to foster military professionalism.

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    [Photo credit: Eddy Isango / IRIN]
  • Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector: A Guide for West African Parliamentarians

    Joint Publication of the Economic Community of West African States and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces | 2011 Senegalese_Army_truck_in_Burkina_Faso Africa’s security landscape features a diverse array of unconventional threats, yet a source of continuing fragility and capacity shortcomings in many countries remains weak management of the security sector. This guide, developed and endorsed by the Economic Community of West African States, provides a detailed account of how African legislatures and legislators can strengthen the role they play in overseeing the development of national security policies, the procurement of arms, the management of personnel, and the modernization of their security forces.

    Download the Report [PDF]: ENGLISH | FRANÇAIS | PORTUGUÊS

  • Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence and Security: 20 Practical Reforms

    100330-M-6001S-290By Mark Pyman and Anne-Christine Wegener. Transparency International, March 2011.

    Corruption and mismanagement in the security sector wastes scarce resources, undermines operational effectiveness, and can fuel insurgency and conflict. Security sector management and capabilities can be vastly improved through common institutional reforms including asset and income disclosures for key decision makers, collaboration with civil society to improve monitoring and oversight, and integrating anti-corruption briefings into pre-deployment training.

    Download the Article: [PDF]
  • The Future of Security Sector Reform

    Security_Sector_ReformEdited by Mark Sedra, Centre for International Governance Innovation. 2010.

    Concepts of security sector reform (SSR) have increasingly emphasized governance and oversight of the security services as much as conventional train-and-equip paradigms.  SSR initiatives that have achieved sustained progress and innovations are those that have complemented and worked within the political dynamics, security needs, and citizen expectations of the contexts in which they are implemented.

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  • Security Sector Reform: Post-Conflict Integration

    Military Road BlockBy Mark Knight. Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform, August 2009. A persistent challenge in stabilizing post civil conflict contexts is the integration of nonstate militias with government military forces. The process requires former enemies to sacrifice the instruments perceived as their greatest guarantee of security. Meanwhile, individual combatants often view the integration process as a threat or opportunity to their livelihoods. Past successes have often involved merging forces into an entirely new institutional structure, and careful attention to the economic incentives of combatants has prevented instability during reform implementation. Download the article: [PDF]
  • Security Sector Governance in Africa: A Handbook

    By Nicole Ball and Kayode Fayemi. CDD, 2004. A major work addressing key actors in the security sector in Africa; the role and impact of democratic governance on the security sector; policy development and implementation in the security sector; financial management; regional actors and their impact on security sector governance; and challenges and opportunities in transforming the security sector.  [HTML]

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