In apartheid-era South Africa, ethnicity was an institutionalized concept used by the white minority government to divide diverse, multi-ethnic Africans. It was partly based on language, traditions, or family residence, but was also a social construction meant to facilitate rule. To overcome some of apartheid’s realities, African leaders sought to diminish artificial identities by forming new groups that comingled language, heritage, and more. Such groups were not strictly ethnic and were partly based on values—notably inclusiveness. This strategy proved successful, and offers an interesting case study of coalition building by shifting from ethnic to value-based calls to action.
Security Topics: Identity Conflict