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  • Media Review of African Press

    • Media Review for April 15, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Nigeria bus station explosion kills at least 71 - video Rescue workers help victims of the blast, which happened on the outskirts of the capital city, Abuja. At least 71 people were killed and more than 100 injured in the blast, which occurred during the morning rush hour. One witness says he saw at least 30 bodies, The Guardian What It Would Take To Stop Boko Haram While Boko Haram has not yet claimed responsibility, overwhelming suspicion falls on the terrorist organization that has taken Nigeria captive in recent years. While usually operating in the northern regions of Nigera, Boko Haram has grown increasingly militant, attacking more populous areas. If Boko Haram is indeed behind today’s attack, the car-bombing in the country’s capital signals a dangerous future for the country. Can the group be stopped? Digging into the terrorist group’s inner workings, World Policy Journal featured an in-depth exploration of just how Boko Haram operates. The graphic, “Anatomy of African Terrorism” from our Winter 2012 issue, outlines the terrorist organization’s support networks—exposing what’s needed to end Boko Haram’s brutal campaign to impose sharia law on Africa’s most populous nation. World Policy Jordanian envoy kidnapped in Libya attack The Jordanian ambassador to Libya has been kidnapped in the capital Tripoli, in an attack that left his driver wounded, officials say. Libya's foreign ministry confirmed Fawaz al-Itan's kidnapping to the BBC, adding that his driver was in hospital. The Jordanian prime minister said that the envoy's release was being negotiated. Libya has been plagued by instability since armed groups toppled Muammar Gaddafi from power in 2011. BBC A war-torn Libyan port muscles its way back There are still buildings on this Libyan city’s main drag that look like Swiss cheese from months of concentrated bombardment by Moammar Gaddafi’s forces three years ago. But while much of Libya stagnates and festers amid postwar politicking, protests and factional violence, Misurata — possibly the worst-damaged city in the country’s 2011 revolution — is moving on and up. New restaurants and hotels have popped up among the bombed-out apartment blocks, and thousands of local entrepreneurs stand ready to hit it big. Undeterred by the violence elsewhere in Libya, European and Turkish businessmen confer with their Misuratan counterparts in the shimmering hotel lobbies here, 131 miles east of the capital, Tripoli. The Washington Post Wanted Jihadist Belmokhtar 'Hiding in Libya' Fugitive jihadist commander Mokhtar Belmokhtar is hiding in Libya, from where he plans to mastermind terrorist attacks across Africa's Sahel region, security sources told Agence France Presse on Sunday. The elusive Islamist, who staged a deadly siege of an Algerian gas plant in January last year, was said to have been killed in northern Mali two months later, although security experts have since expressed doubts over the reports. Naharnet Chad Abandons Its Neighbor Following repeated controversies, the Republic of Chad announcement on April 3 that it intends to withdraw its 850 troops from the African-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic (MISCA). Any hopes for a resolution to the crisis have been dashed due to Chad’s abandonment of the international mission because unlike France, Chad is the decisive player in the future of the Central African Republic. The final straw for Chad’s role in the MISCA mission came after a March 29 incident in Bangui, the Central African Republic’s capital. Chadian soldiers allegedly returned fire after having grenades thrown at them, resulting in the deaths of more than twenty-four people. The outcry against Chadian soldiers was fierce, leading to the Chadian Minister of Foreign Affairs to liken the backlash as a “media lynching”. National Interest Not a Moment Too Soon: UN Approves Peacekeeping Mission for the CAR On 10 April, the United Nations Security Council unanimously voted in favour of a resolution authorising a peacekeeping force of around 12,000 personnel to be deployed to the Central African Republic (CAR). The UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in CAR (MINUSCA) will launch on 15 September and has mandate that will last for an initial period up to 30 April 2015. The mission will aim to provide civilian protection, support disarmament and ensure the safe delivery of humanitarian aid to the CAR, which has been ravaged by violence since late 2012. Tensions between Muslim and Christian communities have been high, and the Séléka rebels continue to clash with anti-balaka militias. Think Africa Press Allowing Another Rwanda [...] As the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide is solemnly commemorated, the crisis in the Central African Republic grows more ominous by the day, grimly illustrating the ineffectiveness of the international system meant to stop catastrophes like these from unfolding. It is already too late for many in the country, and the further delay may well determine the fate of many more.The conflict began when the Seleka, a predominantly Muslim rebel alliance, overthrew the corrupt government of Francois Bozize in March 2013 and proceeded to terrorize the country with impunity, looting, raping and killing. In response, mostly Christian self-defense militias known as anti-balaka rose up — and then committed atrocities of their own. After intense fighting in early December left hundreds dead in Bangui, it appeared likely that the Security Council would authorize an official United Nations peacekeeping mission. But after the African Union insisted it could do the job and the United States, voicing concern over costs, refused to support a French-authored peacekeeping resolution, the council instead mandated France and the African Union to increase their existing small-troop presence. The New York Times Tanzania Vice President, minister escape death in copter crash Tanzanian Vice-President Mohammed Gharib Bilal and several top government officials narrowly escaped death Sunday when the military helicopter carrying them slammed into a hanger and crashed as it took off. Dr Bilal, Works minister John Magufuli, Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner Said Mecky Sadick and Dar es Salaam Special Police Zone Commander Suleiman Kova were pulled unhurt from the wreckage of the helicopter at the Tanzania People’s Defence Forces (TPDF) Air Wing section of Julius Nyerere International Airport. The Chief of Defence Forces, General Davis Mwamunyange, told journalists the helicopter hit a wall and crashed as it was about to take Dr Bilal and his entourage on a tour of Dar es Salaam areas hit by floods following three days of heavy rains. Africa Review Egypt's Military Economy: Money is Power, Power is Money Momentum is continuing to build towards Egypt's 26 May elections, which are widely expected to see Abdel Fattah al-Sisi stroll into the presidential office. After a long period of speculation, the recently promoted Field Marshal finally announced last month that he would be taking off his military slacks and stepping into civilian shoes to run for top office. In a poll in March, 39% of Egyptians said they were planning to vote for him, while fewer than 1% of respondents said they were planning to vote for any of the other candidates. Anything but a Sisi victory seems highly unlikely, and come May, the military's hold on power will have become even further entrenched. It was only in January 2011 that Hosni Mubarak − a military man too, like all his predecessors since 1952 − was overthrown, but now it seems the Egyptian military is not only back in the seat of power, but perhaps stronger than ever. A look behind the political curtains at the backstage that is the Egyptian economy seems to bear this out. Think Africa Press Zambia: Sata’s constitutional tricks risk electoral backlash The sudden about turn by the Zambian President Michael Sata on enacting a new constitution has not only eroded his credibility but is galvanizing the kind of opposition that could see him lose office in the 2016 general election. He obviously senses the danger and has mounted some rear-guard actions. The Catholic FM radio for eastern Zambia recently reported on March 30th of a homily by the Catholic bishop of eastern Zambia, the Rt.-Rev George Lungu in which he disclosed that he had received an angry and threatening telephone call from the president who warned him to stay clear of the constitution debate or else… Africa Argument FBI Transcripts Link Steinmetz to Alleged Guinea Payments Billionaire Beny Steinmetz approved millions of dollars in payments to a wife of the former president of Guinea as he fought to keep part of the world’s largest iron-ore deposit, a suspect in a U.S. graft investigation said in conversations secretly taped by the FBI. The 109 pages of transcripts were among a cache of evidence posted on a Guinean government website April 9. The transcripts were introduced in the course of an investigation by the West African nation into whether bribery was used to obtain rights to the Simandou deposit. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shared evidence with the Guinean government from its own probe into the circumstances surrounding the award of the licenses, according to the Guinean release. Bloomberg GCC Seeks To Form Military Bloc With Jordan, Morocco The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has invited Jordan and Morocco to form a military alliance to resolve the bloc’s manpower issues. According to a Jordanian official, the invitation was presented to the two governments during a GCC meeting in late March and is under consideration. The Morocco-based Al Massae newspaper reported that the new military alliance would include the six countries of the GCC — Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain and Oman — along with Morocco, Jordan and possibly Egypt. “Egypt has not been formally invited; however, there is a strong push from the Saudi government to include the Egyptians in such an alliance. However, the consent of the remaining GCC countries has to be given,” the Jordanian official said. Defense News Is Algeria’s civil society mobilising? Algeria goes to the polls on April 17th with President Abdelaziz Bouteflika vying for a fourth term. Yet the ailing 77-year-old president, who spent most of past year in hospital after a stroke, is an almost invisible presence on the political stage. Faced with a system that refuses to heed change, Algeria's fledgling civil society is getting organised – tentatively. Barred from public spaces, a new generation is making its voice heard on social networks. Our reporters met the journalists, intellectuals and opposition supporters who are beginning to speak out. France 24 Heavy fighting erupts in South Sudan’s Unity state Rebel spokesperson Peter Riek Gew says forces from the South Sudanese army (SPLA) loyal to president Salva Kiir attacked their hideout in the north of Unity state on Sunday night. However, he claims rebels defended their positions and have captured an oil field, about 35km from the state capital, Bentiu. The incident is the latest blow to a ceasefire deal signed between the South Sudanese government and the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army in Opposition. Sudan Tribune South Sudan Free to Purchase Weapons Says Army Spokesman The spokesman for South Sudan’s national army says President Salva Kiir’s government has no restrictions to purchase weapons from its international partners to protect lives and property as enshrined in the country’s constitution. Colonel Philip Aguer says the army will protect unarmed civilians in the country’s conflict to enable officials of the government to continue with peace negotiations with the rebels to resolve the crisis. “The government is capable of interacting with any political entity in the world including Egypt. But the procurement is the business of the government so wherever they get the weapons should not be an accusation,” said Aguer. “The government is capable of getting weapons from anywhere. There [are] no restrictions on the government of South Sudan on where to buy and where to get weapons.” VOA B- Faso’s leader may be in re-election bid Supporters of Burkina Faso's leader rallied at the weekend to press for a referendum on removing limits to presidential terms, the clearest sign yet that he may seek re-election in 2015. Blaise Compaore - in power since leading a coup in 1987 - has positioned himself as a power broker in West Africa and a key ally for France and the United States in the fight against al-Qaeda-linked Islamists in the Sahara-Sahel band. News 24 The French African Connection Francois Hollande, the French president, justified the intervention by stressing his country's commitment to its former West African colony. "France will remain with you as long as it is necessary," he told a press conference. For his part, Dioncounda Traore, the interim Malian president, expressed his gratitude, calling Hollande a "brother to the Malian people" and a "true friend of the whole of Africa". But is France pursuing a neo-colonial policy in Africa? Is it continuing Francafrique , the term coined to describe the country's relationship with its former African colonies, in which it supported unpopular African politicians in order to advance and protect its economic interests? Al Jazeera Piracy could spread to Mozambique A new breed of pirate could emerge in northern Mozambique to exploit the gas and oil industry that is about to boom there, unless the region addresses the problem. Rear-Admiral Robert “Rusty” Higgs and Joao Paulo Coelho, a professor at the Aquino de Braganca Centre for Social Studies in Maputo, issued the warning at a maritime security seminar in Pretoria on Friday. Coelho said that life in Mozambique’s quiet Cabo Delgado province, on the border with Tanzania, was increasingly being disrupted by refugee flows, mostly from Somalia, and human trafficking from eastern and central Africa. IOL News Uganda, Tanzania on UN radar over North Korea links Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Eritrea are the subject of a United Nations investigation over possible arms-related dealings with North Korea, in violation of sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council. But Uganda, which has been indicted by the same panel before, is putting up a bold face, saying the international community should not dictate who it relates with. The UN Panel of Experts, in their latest report, claim that North Korea has developed sophisticated ways to circumvent UN sanctions, including the suspected use of its embassies and private companies to facilitate illegal trade in weapons. Africa Review The US Military Has Been ‘At War’ in Africa on the Sly For Years What the military will say to a reporter and what is said behind closed doors are two very different things—especially when it comes to the US military in Africa. For years, US Africa Command (AFRICOM) has maintained a veil of secrecy about much of the command’s activities and mission locations, consistently downplaying the size, scale and scope of its efforts. At a recent Pentagon press conference, AFRICOM Commander General David Rodriguez adhered to the typical mantra, assuring the assembled reporters that the United States “has little forward presence” on that continent. Just days earlier, however, the men building the Pentagon’s presence there were telling a very different story—but they weren’t speaking with the media. They were speaking to representatives of some of the biggest military engineering firms on the planet. They were planning for the future and the talk was of war. The Nation The Impact of Sino-African Cooperation on Africa’s Development This document summarizes a meeting held at Chatham House on 24 March 2014, focusing on Sino-African cooperation and China’s model for Africa’s development. The message of the meeting is that China’s economic development over the past 35 years puts it in a unique position to counsel African countries on their own development. Chinese influence on the continent is increasingly not just economic or industrial, but about the best path of development – the China Model. This model can be used to help African countries develop strong economies, with political development reliant on economic reforms. Europe should not see China’s involvement on the African continent as a threat, but as an opportunity for coordination. China and Europe have complementary roles to play in providing development assistance to Africa. Chatham House Madagascar: : The Zebu and the Zama In the Zones Rouges of southern Madagascar, economic opportunities are scarce, as is any presence of the state: the police are particularly absent from most villages. But there are lots of zebu - the country’s distinctive breed of humpbacked cattle. Millions of them. Each worth several hundred US dollars. This walking wealth makes for easy prey for rustlers known as dahalo, who rob and kill with virtual impunity. IRIN
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    • Media Review for April 14, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Nigeria violence: 'Dozens killed' in Abuja bus blasts Dozens of people have been killed in two blasts that rocked a crowded bus station on the outskirts of Nigeria's capital, Abuja, officials say. The blast happened as commuters were about to board buses and taxis to go to work in central Abuja, the BBC's Haruna Tangaza reports. Eyewitnesses say there are dead bodies scattered around the area. This may have been another attack by the Islamist militant group known as Boko Haram, correspondents say. Eyewitness Badamsi Nyanya told the BBC he had seen 40 bodies being evacuated; other eyewitnesses say they saw rescue workers and police gathering body parts. BBC Nigerian Militants Kill 217 People in Borno, Senator Says Attacks by suspected Nigerian Islamic insurgent group Boko Haram killed 217 people in the country’s northeastern Borno state yesterday, a senator representing the region said. Five villages were targeted in early morning raids by militants, Borno Central Senator Ahmed Zanna said by phone today. Sixty people were killed in Kala Balge, seven teachers died at a college in Dikwa and there were 150 deaths in three other villages in the state, he said. With less than a year before elections, Nigerian security forces are battling to quell violence and lawlessness across large parts of the country, Africa’s biggest economy and its top oil producer. In northeastern Nigeria, the army has been fighting Boko Haram for four years in a conflict the Brussels-based International Crisis Group said this month killed more than 4,000 people and forced almost 500,000 to flee their homes. Bloomberg Long lines form in Guinea-Bissau poll aimed at turning page on coup Voters in Guinea-Bissau formed long queues on Sunday to elect a new president and parliament they hope will bring stability to the West African state two years after a military coup. The last attempt at an election, in 2012, was aborted when troops under army chief Antonio Indjai stormed the presidential palace days before a presidential run-off was due to take place. Indjai released two doves after he voted early on Sunday, as a symbol of peace, but he declined to make any statement about the twice delayed election which has finally taken place under pressure from donors and regional powers that want to see an end to decades of conflict and instability. Reuters Al-Qaeda propaganda targets Algeria vote Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) chose the Algerian presidential election campaign to post a new video criticising the government, calling for Sharia law and an Islamic caliphate. The al-Qaeda tape, posted March 24th under the title "Algeria... and the dark tunnel", was put together as a documentary. For over an hour the video reviewed several events witnessed by Algeria over the century, beginning with French colonialism and its resistance, up to post-independence events and the emergence of armed terrorist movements. "What distinguishes the tape is that it does not bear the hallmarks of al-Qaeda directly," said Lahcen Oussimouh, a political analyst and researcher at the Moroccan Centre for Sociological Studies. Magharebia Islamists boycott Algeria vote as North African tide turns Algeria's Islamists -- once the country's leading political force -- are boycotting this month's presidential election, chastened by recent poor performances at the polls and setbacks for ideological soulmates across North Africa. The three main moderate Islamist parties have forged an unlikely alliance with the fiercely secularist Rally for Culture and Democracy to call on voters to shun an election they say is a "sham". Such considerations have not prevented some of them from taking part in past elections and even backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the ailing 77-year-old incumbent whose bid for a fourth term they are now united in opposing. AFP on Yahoo News Algerian president in rare appearance as election campaign ends Algeria's ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika made a rare public appearance on Saturday on the second-to-last day of the country’s presidential campaign. Bouteflika, 77, is seeking a fourth consecutive term in office despite deteriorating health following a stroke last year. He appeared only one other time before Saturday’s televised meeting with Spanish Foreign Minister Jose Manuel Garcia-Margallo. This was in televised meeting with US Secretary of State John Kerry on April 3, in which he appeared frail, with his voice barely audible. France 24 Libya's PM quits after armed attack Libya's interim prime minister Abdullah al-Thani stepped down on Sunday, saying that he and his family had been the victims of an armed attack the previous day, a statement said. Thani quit less than a week after parliament tasked him on Tuesday with forming a new cabinet, just weeks after it ousted his predecessor for failing to rein in the lawlessness gripping the North African country. His statement said he would not accept the premiership after a "traitorous attack" on himself and his family, but added that he would act in a caretaker capacity until a new prime minister is appointed. Times Live Gaddafi sons' war crimes trial begins in Libya amid security fears The war crimes trial of two sons of Libya's former dictator, Muammar Gaddafi, begins amid tight security in Tripoli on Monday, in a case causing sensation at home and controversy among rights groups. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and his younger brother, Saadi, are accused of orchestrating a campaign of murder, torture and bombardment of civilians during Libya's eight-month civil war in 2011. Appearing with them are Gaddafi's former spy chief, Abdullah al-Senussi, two former prime ministers and 34 senior officials: much of the dictatorship's surviving elite. The trial is going ahead despite much of the country being gripped by violence and the blockading of oil production by rebel militias. Libya's interim prime minister Abdullah al-Thinni resigned on Sunday saying he had faced threats and could not continue, just weeks after he was appointed to the post. The Guardian Potential collapse of Kariba dam tests disaster preparedness in Zimbabwe In early March, engineers at a conference organised by the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA, a Zambia-Zimbabwe organisation that manages the Kariba dam) warned that the 128-metre-high dam could collapse, threatening at least 3.5 million people, especially in Mozambique and Malawi. Years of erosion had made the foundations of the dam weaker, engineers said. "Anything is possible, so there is a need to act to avoid risk and minimise panic," Modibo Traoré, head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) in Zimbabwe, told IRIN. The Kariba dam holds one of the largest man-made expanses of water in the world. The Guardian What next as Kigali-Paris diplomatic row deepens? The latest diplomatic row between Rwanda and France is likely to roll back the progress Paris was making in pursuing genocide suspects on its soil. On April 10, a French court refused to extradite a Rwandan accused of killing 349 people during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. The latest decision by a French court comes just days after Paris and Kigali disagreed over remarks made by President Paul Kagame alluding to France’s alleged role in the genocide. The remarks riled Paris, prompting the French Justice Minister Christiane Taubira, who was supposed to lead a government delegation to the 20th Commemoration of the Genocide against the Tutsi to call off the trip in protest. East African Security sector reforms are key to combating terrorism in EAC In the past month, the Kenyan and Ugandan governments have sounded the alarm bells on the possibility of terror attacks. In Kenya, police intercepted an explosives-laden car and six people were killed in a church attack in the in the coastal city of Mombasa, and another six in Nairobi’s Eastleigh area while in Uganda security agents said terrorists were planning to use fuel tankers as bombs. The Australian and US governments issued travel advisories to their citizens visiting Kenya, with the former saying, “there is a serious and ongoing risk of large-scale acts of terrorism” in Nairobi and Mombasa. East African Kenya faces uphill battle to revamp police, stem insecurity Their capital tarred with the nickname "Nairobbery" and under almost constant threat of attack by Islamist militants, Kenyans are losing patience with the ill-equipped and notoriously corrupt police force. A catalogue of security failures has exposed the inability of Nairobi's underpaid police to deal with the severe security problems, prompting President Uhuru Kenyatta to step in and promise a massive overhaul. But analysts and security experts say it will be an uphill struggle to undo the broken relationship between public and police, given the ingrained stigma attached to the job and the fact that Kenyans have resorted to mob justice or now-ubiquitous private security firms. AFP on Yahoo News Is Operation Usalama Watch a Somali Gulag? [...] Before President Kenyatta’s departure to Rwanda, the government ordered the most dreadful exercise of ethnic profiling of the Somali community in Eastleigh on grounds that they were responsible for the spate of attacks in Nairobi. Last month’s explosion in Eastleigh that triggered the profiling was blamed on the community, even though no evidence has been adduced in this regard. The community has been stigmatised and portrayed as “terrorists” by the xenophobic narrative of the State, and other Kenyans psyched against them. God forbid, should any other explosion occur tomorrow, ordinary Kenyans may turn on the Somalis! Somali Current Joseph Kony's LRA rebels want to return home After years of living in the inhospitable jungle of the Central African Republic, some members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), Uganda's notorious rebel movement, have expressed their will to surrender their arms and return to their homes in northern Uganda. State newspaper, New Vision, claimed after years of being exposed to elements of the weather in the jungle, the rebels had become fatigued and disillusioned and wanted to return home. Africa Report Trapped in a Nightmare in CAR Starved bodies and emaciated faces are illuminated by rays of light filtering through the planks of the barn. The heat is stifling in this confined space where about a hundred Peuhl tribesmen are staying. Living in the Muslim community, tolerated but not assimilated, these nomadic cattle farmers are forgotten human beings in a landlocked enclave – an additional conflict in a city already beset by violence amid a humanitarian catastrophe. In Boda, a mining town 200 km west of the Central African Republic’s capital, Bangui, 14,000 Muslims are trapped in a perimeter that boils down to a single street lined by a few houses. Nicknamed “Boda the Beautiful,” the city has been surrounded since January 29, following the departure of ex-Seleka (Muslim) rebels, a group responsible for a coup in March 2013. Driven from Bangui in December by anti-Balaka (anti-machete) militiamen, they withdrew in the cover of darkness to Boda. Al Jazeera Torn by war and potential famine, South Sudan needs US humanitarian surge Jeff Millington was one of the lead US diplomats in supporting the negotiations leading to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between northern and southern Sudan. He has remained engaged in issues related to South Sudan since his retirement from the Foreign Service. The corruption and political avarice that have plagued South Sudan since independence have left many long-time supporters confused and disheartened. The moral clarity of the long struggle for independence has disappeared, particularly after December’s political implosion and outbreak of fighting and ethnic violence. Nevertheless, despite our moral qualms, our responsibility to the people of South Sudan remains clear. Through no fault of their own, the people of South Sudan are now suffering terribly: an estimated 10,000 people have been killed and another one million forced from their homes. CS Monitor Pray Or Prey? Cameroon's Pentecostal Churches Face Crackdown (audio) Pentecostalism is now the fastest-growing Christian denomination in the world — and nowhere is it growing faster than in sub-Saharan Africa, home to nearly 45 percent of all Pentecostals. In predominantly Christian Cameroon, there are more than 500 revival churches. Their rapid growth, as well as what the government views as questionable practices, has drawn attention. Last year, officials ordered the closure of nearly 100 churches that it claimed were criminal enterprises taking advantage of poor, desperate people. NPR Madagascar names new prime minister, eyes World Bank aid Madagascar named Kolo Christophe Laurent Roger, a radiologist who lived abroad for decades, as its new prime minister on Friday, as part of a process aimed at ending prolonged political turmoil on the Indian Ocean island. Kolo, 70, faces a big challenge reviving the mineral-rich island's economy, which has slumped since a 2009 military coup. President Hery Rajaonarimampianina, who took office in January, has pledged to woo foreign investors and tourists to Madagascar, which is famed for its exotic wildlife and also boasts nickel, cobalt, coal, iron ore and uranium deposits. Reuters What We (Don't) Know About Eritrea's Economy At the start of this week, Nigeria's GDP figures nearly doubled after the government recalculated economic output. Statisticians rebased their numbers to include changes to the economy, and in a heartbeat Africa's most populous country had also become its richest, leapfrogging South Africa by a mile, and shooting up the global rankings to join the likes of Norway and Poland. Although the ground under their feet was exactly the same, the country they were living in on paper had suddenly shifted for Nigeria's 170 million population. Or should that be 180 million? Or 140 million? Or even higher or lower? The actual size of Nigeria's population is also based on questionable estimates and evidence, and it too is heavily contested. The fact that Nigeria's statistics are so deeply shrouded in doubt is striking especially given that it is, as we now know, the richest country on the continent. This begs the question: if our understanding of Nigeria rests on such shaky ground, what about poorer, less well-connected, and more closed off countries? For example, what about Eritrea? Think Africa Press Angola’s Emerging Capital Markets The economy of Angola is on the verge of a major transition: financial market regulations have been established, secondary debt markets are opening up, and a new stock exchange will be coming on line in 2016. This was part of the optimistic assessment presented by Vice Governor of National Bank of Angola Ricardo Viegas D’Abreu and Vera Esperança dos Santos Daves, Executive Director for the country’s Capital Markets Commission. Within the context Africa’s buoyant economic prospects, Angola’s rapidly changing financial system constitutes a critical component in the continent’s economic narrative. Atlantic Council Crisis response force adds fire power to US base in Africa [...] The prime mission for Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa at Camp Lemonnier — U.S. Africa Command’s main operational hub on the continent — remains focused on a 10-nation area that includes Somalia, where U.S.-trained African Union forces have been fighting al-Qaida-aligned insurgents for years now. “I think the heart of our mission is trying to create militaries that are capable on their own of bringing stability, so you can have peace and security in this region,” said Vice Adm. Alexander Krongard, deputy commander of CJT-HOA. “Frankly, we don’t have a lot of forces to move around on the ground. We’re not into the wholesale training of giant armies.” EARF is part of AFRICOM’s more muscular posture that emerged after the 2012 attacks on U.S. diplomatic facilities in Benghazi, Libya. Stars and Stripes Corps wants crisis response unit in western Africa A move to relocate the Marine Corps’ crisis response unit from Europe to a nation in western Africa may be completed within the next two years, Marine Corps brass said last week. Special-Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Crisis Response, created last April in the wake of the terrorist attack on a U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya, operates out of Morón, Spain. But Marine Corps Commandant Gen. Jim Amos told a crowd at the Navy League’s Sea-Air-Space Expo on April 7 that officials are working to get the unit closer to potential crises. “If you drop straight down to the Gulf of Guinea, this is where we hope to be sometime within the next year or two,” he said. “There’s a great need, as you look at the Gulf of Guinea and you go east — that part of central and south Africa — if something happens in that part of the world, then it will be very difficult for U.S. forces to get down there.” Marine Corps Times Tragic reality exposed: Rhinos will be extinct by year 2020 The slaughter of both white and black rhinos has soared in six years. In 2007, 13 rhinos were poached, but last year that number rose to 1,004. Criminal gangs, and even terror groups like Al Qaeda, are making millions of pounds a year by hacking the animals to death for their horns. Many of the horns are ground into powder and used as traditional medicine in the Far East to treat ailments such as hangovers. Express.co.uk

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    • Media Review for April 11, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Airlift support gets pulled out of effort to counter Lord’s Army ess than a month after sending a “limited number” of CV-22 Ospreys and refueling aircraft into central Africa to assist in the hunt for fugitive warlord Joseph Kony, the U.S. military is pulling those additional assets out of the mission, a top U.S. general said. “In fact, they’ve just begun to move back out,” Africa Command’s Gen. David Rodriguez told reporters in Washington, according to a transcript of the briefing. In late March, 150 noncombat troops were sent to Uganda along with the tilt-rotor aircraft as part of an effort to bolster the effectiveness of regional forces involved in the yearslong search for Kony and his Lord’s Resistance Army. The assets, which were on loan from U.S. Central Command, were described at the outset as temporary in nature. Stars and Stripes UN votes to send peacekeeping force into Central African Republic The UN security council has approved the creation of a peacekeeping force in the Central African Republic to try to stop violence between Christians and Muslims that has threatened to spiral into genocide. The 15-member council unanimously authorised a UN force, Minusca, of up to 10,000 troops, 1,800 police and 20 corrections officers. It has also permitted French troops in the landlocked former colony to support UN peacekeepers. The operation will assume authority on 15 September from the African Union's 5,600-strong Misca force, which was deployed in December. The council wants the UN force to include "as many Misca military and police personnel as possible". The Guardian US releases $22m in additional aid for CAR The United States announced Wednesday an additional $22 million in humanitarian aid for Central African Republic, on the eve of a key vote at the UN to authorize the deployment of peacekeepers. The latest funding brings to $67 million the amount the US has released for the war-ravaged country this financial year, said the US mission to the United Nations, whose chief, Samantha Power, is visiting the country. More than $8.8 million of the $22 million is for health, protection, economic recovery, relief commodities, water and sanitation efforts for non-governmental organizations and the World Health Organization. Times Live Could C.A.R. Violence Lead It to Partition? The United Nations says 19,000 Muslims in the Central African Republic remain in imminent danger and should be relocated to safer towns farther north or outside the country. But it is a complex issue, as tens of thousands of Muslims have already fled their homes in the capital and the western half of the country following attacks. Some local authorities worry that further evacuations could deepen divisions and reinforce calls for a partition of the country. The C.A.R. is a country divided. Muslims are effectively separated from Christians. In the Muslim part of Bangui's PK12 neighborhood, some talk of eventual reconciliation -- others, divorce. VOA Eritrea and Ethiopia: Beyond the Impasse Opportunities exist for external efforts to foster improved relations between Eritrea and Ethiopia. This will involve questioning some of the underlying assumptions about their conflict and current regional dynamics. A fresh approach should involve engagement with each country individually, rather than immediate attempts to promote dialogue between them. The initial focus should be on promoting the conditions in each country for an eventual confident re-engagement with the other. It is important to avoid a narrow focus on the specifics of the border conflict, and post-conflict boundary demarcation, which has hitherto dominated external engagement. Chatham House South Sudan: A Civil War by Any Other Name On 15 December 2013 the world’s newest state descended into civil war. Continuing fighting has displaced more than 1,000,000 and killed over 10,000 while a humanitarian crisis threatens many more. Both South Sudanese and the international community were ill-prepared to prevent or halt the conflict: the nation’s closest allies did little to mediate leadership divisions within the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement’s (SPLM). The SPLM and its army (SPLA) quickly split along divisions largely unaddressed from the independence war. Were it not for the intervention of Uganda and allied rebel and militia groups, the SPLA would likely not have been able to hold Juba or recapture lost territory. The war risks tearing the country further apart and is pulling in regional states. Resolving the conflict requires not a quick fix but sustained domestic and international commitment. Governance, including SPLM and SPLA reform and communal relations, must be on the table. Religious and community leaders, civil society and women are critical to this process and must not be excluded. International Crisis Group We will not leave South Sudan - UPDF The Uganda People’s Defence Force will only leave South Sudan if there is an alternative security arrangement, Maj Gen David Muhoozi, the commander of Land Forces has said. “We do not need to be stampeded out of South Sudan without a mechanism to maintain order,” he said, raising fears a sudden UPDF withdrawal could plunge the country back into violence and derail the ongoing peace talks in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. “You cannot talk in the middle of chaos,” Gen Muhoozi said in an interview on Wednesday at the UPDF camp at the military Airbase in Juba. His comments come at a time when it has become apparent that the regional force proposed to replace UPDF may not be ready to deploy by the April timeline. Daily Monitor Forecasting South African election results This policy brief provides additional detail on the Bafana Bafana, Mandela Magic and Nation Divided scenarios first set out in the ‘South African futures 2030’ study released by the Institute for Security Studies in February 2014. The focus in this publication is on possible national election results in 2014, 2019, 2024 and 2029. Amongst many considerations, four factors appear decisive in setting South Africa on the political scenarios described. The role and leadership of the African National Congress is central to all, but developments within the Congress of South African Trade Unions, which is profoundly split along political and ideological lines and is facing the loss of its largest member, could imply the start of new political alignments. Additional factors are rising voter apathy and the ability of opposition parties to mobilise the young black vote in their favour. ISS What’s it like to be Somali in Kenya Twitter is abuzz and Somalis are trending in Kenya, not for reasons of their own, but rather impositions beyond their capacity. There is quite a lot of outrage from all corners that Kenyans venture, from the passionately human to the average reactionary comments in “ full support” (“remove them”) of the state. The police chief has dubbed this “operation sanitize” and the media as usual in Kenya has a penchant for rather crude and unconscionable fascist statements towards Somali, Somalia and everything Somali, Kenyan ethnicity notwithstanding. Chime in the police who have dubbed Somalis ATM machines. The Kenyan Defense Force is in Somalia exerting its right to military voyeurism; the current vogue in Africa as usual at the behest of America’s Africa Command. Ask anyone in Eastleigh, the densely Somali populated area, if they can remember any year before or after the collapse of Somalia where there has not been a Musako (mass arrest). They will most likely say it has just been intensified from 1991 onwards. Africa Is a Country Somalis detained in Kenyan stadium as crackdown continues The Kenyan security forces are continuing a major crackdown on suspected Islamists from Somalia. Thousands have been rounded up in the capital Nairobi. Many have been detained in the city's Kasarani football stadium as the process of checking their identities continues. The operation follows a spate of attacks in Kenya by suspected supporters of Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked al-Shabab rebels. Deutsche Welle Rwanda genocide: 'Domino effect' in DR Congo As Rwanda remembers the 20th anniversary of the genocide in which some 800,000 mainly ethnic Tutsis were killed, massacres of Hutus in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo have been forgotten, writes the BBC's Maud Jullien. BBC Twenty years after genocide France and Rwanda give different versions of history Twenty years after 800,000 Tutsis and moderate hutus were killed in Rwanda, the country’s president, Paul Kagame, has again declared publicly that France played a “direct role in the preparation of the genocide”. His accusations led Paris to boycott Monday’s genocide commemoration ceremony in Kigali, but also sparked considerable soul-searching over the allegations in the French media. RFI Kagame [...] As the head of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a rebel army formed largely from Tutsi exiles in neighbouring Uganda, Kagame had played a leading role in the three-year-old Rwandan civil war, supposedly settled with a peace agreement in 1993. When the massacres began a year later, Kagame and the RPF restarted the war and eventually brought the genocide to a close with a complete military victory - forcing the government and its supporters over the border into Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo, or DRC). Over the subsequent 20 years, the last 14 of which have been under Kagame’s presidency, Rwanda has been reborn as one of Africa’s most unlikely success stories. This small landlocked country is now one of the safest on the continent; the economy is thriving; 98 percent of the population has access to health-care; the average life expectancy has doubled; there is free education; and many of the roads are as good as any in Europe. Al Jazeera DRC Military Offensives Reduces Number of Armed Groups The Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) information minister says joint military offensives launched by the national army (FARDC) and the United Nations Mission to the country (MONUSC) to protect unarmed civilians have sharply reduced the number of rebel groups from 55 to about 20. Lambert Mende also says another round of military offensives have been launched against the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) to defeat the armed group in a bid to ensure security and peace in parts of the country the rebels operate. “Thanks to the combination of the FARDC and the assistance of MONUSCO, we managed now to reduce from 55 armed groups to 21 or less, and we hope that this phenomenon will end very soon in our country,” said Mende. VOA Africa's anti-gay movement spreads to Ethiopia Two groups in Ethiopia said Thursday that they will hold an anti-gay demonstration later this month, a move that puts Ethiopia in line to become the next African country to increase the public demonization of gays. Although gay sex is already outlawed in Ethiopia, the rally set for April 26 comes as the parliament considers making homosexual acts ineligible for presidential pardons. New legislation in Uganda and Nigeria this year has increased penalties for homosexual acts in those two countries, sending many gays underground or out of the country. The government-affiliated Addis Ababa Youth Forum and a religious group associated with the Ethiopian Orthodox Church told a news conference that an increasing rate of homosexual acts in the country has reached an alarming rate. AP on Yahoo News Kariba Dam wall faces collapse While the Zambian government acknowledged the gravity of the situation, their Zimbabwean counterparts were attempting to downplay it. Zambia’s Finance Ministry permanent secretary Felix Nkulukusa told NewsDay yesterday that the dam wall risked being washed away if nothing was done in the next three years. Nkulukusa, who is also chairperson of an inter-governmental committee responsible for mobilising funds to repair the dam wall, said Zambia and Zimbabwe must raise $250 million to avert a major humanitarian and economic crisis. Newsday.co.za In Libya, politicians in fear of powerful militias [...] From the start, the fledgling government did little to follow through on a program to disarm and demobilize the militias. Instead, officials tried to buy them off, spending billions of dollars to enlist the fighters in various security tasks, without ever winning their loyalty — or building a state for them to be loyal to. Now, with the army and police still in disarray, politicians are far too weak to control the militias. The resulting message is "don't negotiate with the government, prevent any compromise. The government will be too weak to attack back," said Jason Pack, a researcher of Middle Eastern History at Cambridge University who runs the website Libya-Analysis.com, focused on the country's politics and economy. He said government appeasement of militias and regional demands "has caused erosion of basic institutions ... All of the current problems go back to this." AP on Miami Herald Violence mars Algeria campaign Several acts of violence marred Algeria's presidential election campaign over the last week, as voters prepare to head to the polls April 17th. In Bouira, a representative of Ali Benflis, a serious rival to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, was prevented from holding a public meeting at a cinema on Tuesday (April 8th) by a group of campaigners. That followed an incident last Saturday, when protesters in Bejaia raided a community arts centre that was supposed to host a meeting led by Abdelmalek Sellal, who was forced to call off the event. Damage to the building was estimated at 100 million dinars, according to APS. Magharebia The U.S.-Algerian security pact is about energy, not al-Qaeda Last week, the United States and Algeria opened up strategic talks on regional security during U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry’s first visit to the north African country. Leaders of the two nations pledged to continue working together to combat Islamist terrorism within Algeria and across the Maghreb. The spectre of terrorist unrest has never been far away since the last major incident involving an al-Qaeda assault on the Tiguentourine gas plant last January. The brutal attack included a gruelling five day siege which left at least 49 hostages dead. But inconsistencies in the Algerian state version of events reveal a dangerous game which is unravelling regional security to cater for foreign energy interests. Al Arabiya Justine Greening: global humanitarian aid system is near breaking point The global humanitarian aid system is being "stretched to breaking point" by climate change, war, population growth and extremism, and must be overhauled to ensure that more is done to prepare for disasters rather than merely relieve them, the British government will warn on Friday. In a speech to the World Bank spring meetings in Washington, the international development secretary, Justine Greening, will argue that the international community must "up our game" in the face of such crises as last year's typhoon in the Philippines and the conflicts in Syria, Central African Republic and South Sudan. "There is a growing danger that while some countries are graduating from aid, the most fragile and vulnerable countries will be left far behind," she will say. "The humanitarian system is already stretched to breaking point. The reality is that we are facing ever more demands on the system, as we deal with the effects of a changing climate, growing population, conflict and extremism." The Guardian It's Time for Africa's Green Revolution, Focused on Corn The high-yield wheat and rice of the Green Revolution produced dramatic gains in harvests in Asia and Latin America. But not in Africa. There, the climate was too varied, the soils too degraded. Africa lacked infrastructure such as roads, or India’s railway system, that helped farmers to commercialize their grain. It did not have a network of companies to sell farmers the hybrid seeds for the high-yield varieties, nor the fertilizer and pesticides necessary to take full advantage of those seeds. Asian governments had large programs to provide credit, extension agents to teach new farming methods and subsidized inputs; the Food Corporation of India bought surplus grains at a guaranteed price. African governments, for the most part, did not do these things. And today Africa’s agricultural yields are less than half the global average, and about 25 percent of what they could potentially yield. Agricultural productivity in Africa is growing at about half the rate the population is growing. The New York Times
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    • Media Review for April 10, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      US shows new interest in Africa In mid-March 2014 President Obama gave orders for a remarkable expansion of the US military presence in Uganda. The 100 soldiers of a special unit would be joined by a further 150. For the first time, planes would also be dispatched. The troops would be used to help Uganda's government to track down warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The soldiers wear battledress but may only fight in self-defense. Deutsche Welle Central Africa clashes kill 30, 'mainly civilians': police The first European Union troops arrived in the Central African Republic on Wednesday, as local police said fresh sectarian violence had killed at least 30 people, mostly civilians. An initial contingent of 55 EU troops made their first patrols in the capital Bangui, their arrival coming a day before the UN's Security Council is expected to authorise deployment of some 12,000 peacekeepers in order to help end the violence. The troops which arrived on Wednesday had the aim of "maintaining security and training local officers", French army spokesman Francois Guillermet told AFP. AFP US Thanks, Supports Peacekeepers in CAR The United States has handed over dozens of vehicles to the African Union military force in the Central African Republic, and promised 200 more, as well as more funding for peacekeeping. The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Samantha Power was in Bangui to review plans for converting the current African Union mission here into a U.N. peacekeeping mission. The U.N. Security Council is expected to authorize that move on Thursday. Power attended a ceremony Wednesday at the base of the African Union mission MISCA, where she praised the peacekeepers’ sacrifices. VOA First EU troops arrive in Central Africa The first EU troops have arrived in Bangui, capital of the strife-torn Central African Republic, a spokesman for the French army told AFP news agency. Francois Guillermet said 55 soldiers from the European Union Force (EUFOR) were conducting their first patrols in the city on Wednesday, with the aim of "maintaining security and training local officers". France also called for a vote on Thursday on a resolution that would authorise a nearly 12,000-strong UN peacekeeping force to take over from an African force less than half its size in the former French colony which has been wracked by ethnic violence. Al Jazeera France says it backs the evacuation of Muslims in Central African Republic 'as last resort' France said on Tuesday it supported the evacuation of Muslims under threat of reprisals in Central African Republic "as a last resort," saying that the priority was to save lives despite concerns it could lead to the division of the country. The United Nations said on April 1 it was trying to evacuate 19,000 Muslims urgently from the capital Bangui and other parts of Central African Republic who are surrounded by anti-balaka Christian militia threatening their lives. Anti-balaka forces control major routes to and from Bangui as well as many towns and villages in the southwest, the UN refugee agency said. The militia has become more militarized as it steps up attacks on Muslims and African Union peacekeepers. Globalpost Subcommittee Hearing: U.S. Policy Toward Morocco (video) Mr. William Roebuck - Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Egypt and Maghreb Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs - U.S. Department of State [full text of statement] Ms. Alina Romanowski - Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for the Middle East - U.S. Agency for International Development [full text of statement] House Committee on Foreign Affairs Sudan expels U.N. agency chief accused of ‘interfering’ Sudan has expelled the head of a United Nations agency in the country and accused her of interfering in domestic affairs, the foreign ministry said on Wednesday. Pamela DeLargy, an American who headed the U.N.’s Population Fund office in Sudan (UNFPA), “was asked to leave,” ministry spokesman Abubakr al-Siddiq told AFP. “Because she was not abiding by the country’s laws, and also because she was interfering in the country’s domestic affairs in a manner that is inconsistent with her status as a U.N. official,” he said. Al Arabiya UN accused of 'shameful attitude' in S Sudan A leading international aid agency has issued a stinging attack on the United Nations mission in South Sudan, accusing it of a "shameful attitude" and leaving thousands of displaced people living in squalor. Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders, MSF) said on Wednesday that UN officials had left terrified civilians sheltering in a flood-prone part of a UN base "exposed to waterborne diseases and potential epidemics", even while acknowledging the camp was a "death trap". "In a shocking display of indifference, senior United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) officials have refused to improve living conditions for 21,000 displaced people," MSF said. Al Jazeera Bashir issues a decree allowing political parties’ public activities The Sudanese president Omer Hassan al-Bashir has issued a presidential decree on Wednesday allowing political parties to carry out their activities and hold public meetings and seminars besides giving them equal access to state media. The move comes within the framework of creating an environment conducive for national dialogue among all political parties. Bashir announced a series of resolutions at the onset of a political roundtable held on Sunday in Khartoum with the participation of 83 political parties. Sudan Tribune Who Audits the Auditors: Scandal at the Heart of the African Peer Review Mechanism [...] The APRM she is referring to is the African Peer Review Mechanism, an instrument set up by the African Union in 2003 to encourage good governance through mutual assessments. The mechanism was heralded as an innovative African solution to African issues, and so far 34 countries have joined voluntarily. But over a decade on from its establishment, it seems a number of problems have developed, distracting the APRM from its mission. These are problems that few in the organisation are willing to talk about. One Cameroonian minister, for example, declined to be interviewed for fear of retaliation against his government, commenting mysteriously “each state has its own skeletons in the closet." Meanwhile, two other senior figures − one a former member of the APRM's Panel of Eminent Persons, the other a minister in a West African government − first agreed to speak before having a change of heart. Think Africa Press Nine Questions about the Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership You Were Too Embarrassed to Ask [...] As the terrorist threat continues to evolve in North and West Africa, the Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP) has been, and continues to be one of the United States’ primary tools of engagement in these regions. However, because TSCTP is a rather opaque program, its scope, and indeed, its limitations are not very well understood. Last week, I published The Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership: Building Partner Capacity to Counter Terrorism and Violent Extremism—a study that is the outcome of extensive interviews across the interagency and fieldwork in the Sahel and Maghreb. This study offers clarity and insight on TSCTP, dissecting the “anatomy” of the program—interagency stakeholders, partner nation counterparts, categories of TSCTP engagement—and derives planning and implementation challenges from the strategic to the tactical level, as well as offers recommendations to strengthen the program. War on the Rocks Kenya deports 82 Somalis in terror crackdown Kenya deported more than 80 Somali nationals Wednesday as part of an ongoing security crackdown by Kenyan authorities following recent terror attacks, Kenya's internal security minister said. The sweep, which police say has led to the arrests of more than 3,000 people in five days, is being criticized by human rights activists who say it is targeting Somalis and suspects are not being allowed legal counsel. Rights defenders also say the deportations have circumvented the courts. AP on Stars and Stripes Respect human rights in Eastleigh crackdown – US US Ambassador to Kenya Robert Godec has emphasised the need for the police to uphold human rights in the ongoing terror crackdown. While describing terrorism as a global challenge, Godec stressed that the crackdown needs to be carried out in a way that does not infringe on the fundamental rights of the suspects. “As the government does what it needs to do to secure the country, at the same time, the Constitution and the International law and commitments regarding human rights need to be respected,” he indicated. “It is important that as security operations are carried out, human rights are respected. Terrorism is a global challenge and one that we have to work together to meet,” he said. Capital FM Six killed in two bomb blasts in Somalia At least five civilians were killed by a roadside bomb in southern Somalia, while another explosion in capital Mogadishu killed a government official, officials and witnesses said Wednesday. Several African Union (AU) peacekeepers and civilians were killed and many others injured when a roadside bomb exploded outside an AU military base in the southern port town of Kismayo in the lower Juba region, according to Juba administration official Abdinasir Seerar. "We are not sure yet about how many were killed or wounded, but the explosion was a powerful one, and it was followed by several bullets fired by (AU) troops," Seerar told dpa. Times Live Rwanda: From ministers to exiles (video) After the killing of more than 800,000 people in just 100 days in Rwanda in 1994, the United Nations created an international tribunal to try the suspected masterminds of the genocide. To date, the Arusha-based court has tried more than 70 people, and found 14 of them not guilty. Though they have been cleared, they have nowhere to go. It is the first time they have spoken to any media since being indicted in the 1990s. The BBC's Anne Soy travelled under UN police escort to meet them. BBC Nigerian Air Force buying new fighters, choppers The chief of Nigeria's air force says it is buying new fighter jets and helicopters. The air force has been pivotal in an offensive to curb an Islamic uprising in the northeast with near-daily bombing raids on insurgent hideouts in forests and caves along the border with Cameroon. Air Marshal Adesola Amosu said in a statement Wednesday that the government has approved the acquisition of fighter aircraft and helicopters as well as upgrades for some existing aircraft. The air force uses mainly Chinese Chengdu-F7 multi-role fighters and Russian Mi-35 attack helicopters. Amosu said C-130 and G-222 transport planes also are being used in the conflict. AP on Stars and Stripes What Does the Tactic of Foreign Kidnappings Tell us about Boko Haram? At approximately 2 am on the morning of 5 April, two Italian priests and a Canadian nun were abducted from their residence in northern Cameroon. The incident occurred in Tchere, a settlement located in Cameroon’s Far North Region which shares a border with Nigeria. While there have been no immediate claims of responsibility for the abduction, suspicion has fallen on the Nigerian-based Islamist militant group Boko Haram, which is believed to have established an operational presence in the region. If confirmed, the latest kidnapping would mark the third abduction of foreign nationals by Boko Haram in northern Cameroon. Think Africa Press Nigeria Police Send Special Forces to Northwest After Attack Nigerian police dispatched special forces to the northwestern state of Zamfara after a weekend attack that may have killed more than 200 people. The forces include a counter-terrorism unit, intelligence personnel and airborne surveillance, police spokesman Frank Mba said late yesterday in an e-mailed statement. Gunmen killed more than 200 people in the Maru local government, 85 kilometers (53 miles) south of the state capital, Gusau, Lagos-based ThisDay newspaper reported today. About 150 of the victims were buried in a mass grave, it said. Bloomberg 4,000 immigrants reach Italy by boat in 48 hours – as minister calls for EU help Italy says 4,000 immigrants have reached its shores by boat in the past two days – the highest number since it began a naval operation to handle the influx after two shipwrecks last year. "The landings are non-stop and the emergency is increasingly glaring," the interior minister, Angelino Alfano, said. "Right now two merchant ships are rescuing two boats with 300 and 361 people aboard. It appears there's at least one corpse on board." Alfano estimated that 15,000 migrants crossing the Mediterranean had been rescued so far this year. He claims up to 600,000 people from Africa and the Middle East are ready to set off from Libyan shores. The Guardian Guinea to strip Beny Steinmetz company of mining concessions One of the world's wealthiest men was dealt a blow by one of the world's poorest countries on Wednesday when an investigation by the government of Guinea concluded that a company run by billionaire Beny Steinmetz should be stripped of lucrative mining concessions because it had obtained them through corruption. The decision is a turning point in the two-year battle between Steinmetz and the first-ever democratically-elected government of the impoverished west African country of Guinea for control of the world's riches untapped iron ore deposits. Steinmetz had acquired the rights to a giant deposit beneath the Simandou mountains in a deal that was widely regarded as remarkable, even within the buccaneering world of African mining: his company BSG Resources (BSGR) said it had won two mining concessions as a result of a $165m (£98.5m) investment in the exploration of the area. It then sold 51% of its prize to the Brazilian mining giant Vale for $2.5bn. The Guardian Amid Europe’s Crisis, Danger Signs From Egypt [...] Only 38 months after Egypt’s pro-democracy revolution overthrew Hosni Mubarak, the new army-backed strongman, Field Marshal Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi, is bidding to follow Mubarak’s path in ruling as a nominally civilian, nominally elected, authoritarian president. El-Sisi oversaw the Egyptian government’s massacre of as many as 1,000 protesters camped at Cairo’s Rabaa Square in August – an act of political violence that, we should join Kaissouni in noting, was the deadliest “in Egypt’s modern history.” “It has become fairly clear that, for much of the international community, principle and human rights in Egypt have taken a backseat to more basic and time-tested notions of realpolitik,” Kaissouni writes on the Council’s EgyptSource blog. Western governments’ criticism of El-Sisi’s abuses “when voiced, is more often than not understated, discreet, or tempered by subsequent declarations of support,” Kaissouni says. “Most countries seem to be naively hoping for a restoration of stability, hopefully with the bare minimum of public human rights abuses.” Atlantic Council Calls mount for Maghreb union Maghreb integration is the best way to improve security and boost economic opportunities for youth, regional experts agreed last week in Nouakchott. Terrorism, cross-border crime and illegal immigration threaten security, while the lack of regional integration contributes to unemployment and economic losses, said Didi Ould Salek, the president of the Maghreb Centre for Strategic Studies (CMESMR). His group hosted the April 5th conference in the Mauritanian capital, along with Tunisia's Maghreb Forum for International Co-operation. Magharebia Moroccans, US engage in stability operations The U.S. and coalition forces learned valuable lessons during recent campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, specifically regarding the importance of stability operations and their relevance during future contingencies. Soldiers from the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces and U.S. military personnel conducted stability operations training to put those lessons into practice during Exercise African Lion 14, recently. The combined-joint exercise between the Kingdom of Morocco, and the U.S. involves approximately 150 soldiers of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces, 350 U.S. service members and additional military personnel from European and African partner nations. Camp Le Jeune Globe The power of civil society: A concrete Mozambican example Covering politics can be a depressing business. All the wars, the infighting, the sheer inability of so many governments to govern in the interests of their people – it’s not exactly uplifting stuff. Compounding this is the glacial, often non-existent, pace of change. It’s hard not to feel impotent sometimes. We can shout, we can scream, we can march in the streets, but is any of it really making any difference? Every now and then, however, a story comes along that warms the heart and reminds us all that change is possible; that the big, lumbering ship of government can be forced in a different direction – or at least prevented from wandering too far off course – with a little bit of well-placed pressure. The story of the Mozambican parliament and their ill-conceived penal code is a perfect example. Daily Maverick
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    • Media Review for April 9, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Department of Defense Press Briefing by Deputy Assistant Secretary Dory and Gen. Rodriguez in the Pentagon Briefing Room Presenters: Deputy Assistant Secretary Of Defense For African Affairs Amanda J. Dory and General David M. Rodriguez (USA), commander, U.S. Africa Command MODERATOR: Everybody, thank you so much for joining us today. I'd like to especially welcome General Rodriguez from U.S. Africa Command and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for African Affairs Amanda Dory from the Pentagon. We're very excited to have both of them here briefing us on the current state of affairs in Africa, and we're glad that you could all join us for this. I'd just like to say that when you ask a question, for their benefit, if you wouldn't mind just letting us know who you are and what affiliation you're with. General Rodriguez would like to call on the next questioner, so we'll do it that way. And we have almost an hour, so with that, I'll turn it over to the General, to Deputy Dory, and open for their statement and then your questions. U.S. Department of Defense Ethnic Violence, African Extremists Worry Pentagon Officials Twenty years after close to one million people were slaughtered in the Rwandan genocide, U.S. military officials are confident that forces are better positioned to prevent a repeat of such mass slaughter. But, Washington is still concerned about security across the African continent. Fears run rampant across much of the Central African Republic, where 2,000 people have been killed in ethnic violence since December, and some African peacekeepers already have pulled out. But U.S. defense officials say the fact that African forces have been able to intervene is a sign things are slowly improving. “The African forces that now are available that participate in these interventions and those types of things have expanded incredibly in the last 20 years; I mean six nations in Somalia, nine going to 16 in Mali," said General David Rodriguez. VOA Kenya rounds up thousands in Islamist crackdown The operation, which local media say has involved more than 6,000 men from the police and from the elite General Service Unit, started on Friday and appeared to have been focused on Eastleigh, an ethnic Somali-dominated district of the Kenyan capital. The crackdown follows a spate of attacks in Kenya by suspected Islamists and sympathisers of Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab rebels. Those arrested have been subjected to identity checks, with hundreds and maybe thousands held in police cells or a football stadium in Nairobi's Kasarani district for further checks, officials and human rights activists said. "We have arrested almost 4,000 people in this operation," Kenya's Interior Minister Joseph Ole Lenku said on the ministry's Twitter account on Monday night. Times Live Terror Crackdown Splits Kenya's Ruling Party The crackdown on terror suspects by the government has now degenerated into a war of words between partners in the Jubilee coalition, with Kigumo MP Jamleck Kamau filing a complaint against National Assembly Majority Leader Aden Duale for allegedly 'threatening' him. Kamau says he received text messages from Duale after he appeared on a TV show on Monday, where he defended the government's terror clampdown. The Kigumo legislator who reported the matter at the Parliament Police Station says the texts pose a threat to his life since Duale referred to him as an ethnic chauvinist who is now very unpopular within the Muslim community. allAfrica The French African Connection In January, France sent 4,000 troops to Mali in a bid to combat rebel fighters who, after seizing control of the country's north, threatened to invade the capital city of Bamako. Francois Hollande, the French president, justified the intervention by stressing his country's commitment to its former West African colony. "France will remain with you as long as it is necessary," he told a press conference. For his part, Dioncounda Traore, the interim Malian president, expressed his gratitude, calling Hollande a "brother to the Malian people" and a "true friend of the whole of Africa". But is France pursuing a neo-colonial policy in Africa? Is it continuing Francafrique , the term coined to describe the country's relationship with its former African colonies, in which it supported unpopular African politicians in order to advance and protect its economic interests? Al Jazeera The mad, mad debate over Rwanda -- 20 years after the genocide Caution: This is not an apology for President Kagame and his autocratic tendencies that have resulted in carnage and death in the DRC, Rwanda and elsewhere. At a conference last year a US State Department official told a group of us that Rwanda was so polarizing that even at the consulate in Nairobi the DRC crowd did not get along well with the Rwanda crowd. It is not surprising why that might have been the case, or why the present analysis on the commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the 1994 genocide remains polarized. CS Monitor The Catholic church must apologise for its role in Rwanda's genocide There is a Roman Catholic priest at a medieval church an hour's drive from Paris who has been indicted by a United Nations court for genocide, extermination, murder and rape in Rwanda. Father Wenceslas Munyeshyaka was notorious during the 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis for wearing a gun on his hip and colluding with the Hutu militia that murdered hundreds of people sheltering in his church. A Rwandan court convicted the priest of genocide and sentenced him in absentia to life in prison. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda spent years trying to bring him to trial. But the Catholic church in France does not see any of this as a bar to serving as a priest and has gone out of its way to defend Munyeshyaka. The Guardian US Urges Burundi to Drop Constitution Changes, Avoid ‘Dark Days’ The United States urged Burundi's president on Tuesday to drop planned constitutional changes that could upset a delicate ethnic power balance, warning that the country risked a return to the “dark days” of civil war. Samantha Power, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations met President Pierre Nkurunziza - who might be allowed to run for a third term under a new constitution - and told him he should leave the current system in place. “What we stressed was that the president has a tremendous legacy and he has built with the people of Burundi some great successes from 2005 until the very present,” Power told a news conference in Bujumbura after her meeting. VOA Medical Charity Sharply Criticizes U.N. Operation in South Sudan The United Nations peacekeeping operation in South Sudan was severely criticized on Wednesday by Doctors Without Borders, the emergency medical charity, over what it called a shameful indifference to the squalid living conditions of 21,000 displaced people forced to live in a flooded portion of a peacekeeping base in the capital, Juba. The rebuke from Doctors Without Borders was unusual because the charity cooperates with the United Nations in many underserved countries and has been a vital source of aid in South Sudan, which is facing the most severe humanitarian crisis in Africa and perhaps the world, compounded by a political conflict that sharply escalated last December. About 3.7 million people in South Sudan, a third of the population, are at risk of starvation as the rainy season looms, United Nations officials have said. Hundreds of thousands have been displaced by the conflict. The New York Times Sudanese Air Force Bombs Um Baru, RSF Attacks in Kutum, North Darfur The Sudanese Air Force has been bombarding areas in Um Baru locality from Friday until Monday. Elements of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) attacked various areas in Kutum locality in North Darfur. Speaking to Radio Dabanga, fleeing residents from the area of Muzbat in the northern part of Um Baru locality reported that the Sudanese Air force has stepped up its bombardments since last Friday. "From Friday until Monday, Antonov and Sukhoi fighter jets have been bombing our area. Dozens of livestock were killed, and many water sources were damaged. Eight bombs dropped on Muzbat town ruined its hospital and the market. A number of houses and shops burned down." allAfrica Libya’s security dilemma Libyans face a thorny security dilemma: The absence of strong state institutions creates the need, opportunities and support for militias to provide security and play a role in the transition, but these groups undermine security and the development of strong state institutions. Libyans are well aware of the problem, but both citizens and elites are caught in the cycle. To exit the cycle to a better outcome, it is necessary to understand how citizens perceive the situation and the choices they make. In Libya, many citizens live in daily fear. They feel unsafe in public and even in their own homes. More than one-third of Libyans report feeling unsafe going to the market, school or work, according to three nationally representative surveys, each of 1,200 Libyans. The Washington Post Is Derna becoming an Islamist emirate? A group calling itself the "Shura Council of Islamist Youth in Derna" says it plans to impose Sharia law in the eastern Libyan town. The jihadist group paraded through the coastal city on Friday (April 4th), AFP reported. Photos on the group's Facebook page show dozens of pickup trucks with heavily armed men in uniforms, their faces obscured by masks. With the absence of state institutions, the region is fertile ground for extremist organisations looking to grow and thrive. The Shura council declared their hostility to about anyone who, in their view, antagonises God and the Prophet. Magharebia What Does the Tactic of Foreign Kidnappings Tell us about Boko Haram? At approximately 2 am on the morning of 5 April, two Italian priests and a Canadian nun were abducted from their residence in northern Cameroon. The incident occurred in Tchere, a settlement located in Cameroon’s Far North Region which shares a border with Nigeria. While there have been no immediate claims of responsibility for the abduction, suspicion has fallen on the Nigerian-based Islamist militant group Boko Haram, which is believed to have established an operational presence in the region. If confirmed, the latest kidnapping would mark the third abduction of foreign nationals by Boko Haram in northern Cameroon. Think Africa Press Top Nigerian Islamic body accuses military over Muslim deaths A leading Nigerian Islamic group has accused the country's military of summarily executing Muslims in the name of counter-terrorism, prompting a swift and strongly-worded denial on Tuesday from top brass. The Jama'atu Nasril Islam (JNI) umbrella group of Muslim organisations said followers of the faith had "become endangered species, murdered and maimed indiscriminately in the guise of fighting terrorism". "The dimension of extra-judicial killing of Muslims by the military on a mere whim of unsubstantiated suspicion leaves much to be desired," it said in a statement signed by its secretary-general, Khalid Aliyu. AFP Reconciliation falters in Ivory Coast as Ouattara is slow to welcome back exiles Alassane Ouattara was sworn in as president of Ivory Coast in May 2011, after a short, sharp post-electoral crisis in which 3,000 died, according to the United Nations. But three years later justice has still not been done, permanently jeopardising the reconciliation process. The transfer of Charles Blé Goudé to the international criminal court last month is emblematic of at least part of the problem. A key figure in the regime led by President Laurent Gbagbo, he is being prosecuted by the court on four charges of crimes against humanity committed during the fighting that followed the disputed 2010 presidential election. In dispatching the charismatic Goudé to The Hague, the Ivory Coast was merely complying with its international obligations, a year after ratifying the Treaty of Rome. But it hesitated a long time before doing so. In another extremely sensitive case, the government dismissed the ICC arrest warrant for Simone Gbagbo, the former first lady, under prosecution on the same charges. It assured the tribunal that Ivorian courts had the willpower and capacity to bring her to trial on the same charges. The Guardian Chadian withdrawal leaves CAR's Muslims exposed Interviewed by FRANCE 24, Jean-Marie Michel Mokoko, head of the International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA), raised the alarm on Chad’s recent decision to withdraw from the peacekeeping efforts in the country. Speaking after his meeting with the Chadian defence minister, Mokoko said he regretted the decision, which he said leaves the UN-backed peacekeeping mission worryingly short on troops. France 24 Money and politics: a toxic mix that needs to be diluted in South Africa Political parties require funds, but no one knows how much will be spent on campaigning for this year’s elections given the complete lack of transparency of the funding of political parties. The lack of regulation of private funding to political parties also represents a major gap in South Africa’s anti-corruption framework. Political parties seem to agree that transparency is a good thing, but when it comes to disclosing private funding sources it remains a matter of ‘show me yours and I’ll show you mine’. As much as the African National Congress (ANC) has been coy about its donations, the opposition Democratic Alliance (DA) has also been reticent to disclose its sources of funding. ISS Guinea-Bissau: Elections, But Then What? Two years and one day after the coup that prevented the victory of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) in the March-April 2012 presidential polls, and after a series of postponements and crises, Guinea-Bissau will finally hold elections on 13 April 2014. These legislative and presidential elections will take place not because of a strong national consensus but because the country is on the verge of bankruptcy and the international community, less divided than it was at the time of the coup, has applied strong pressure. The vote is only the first stage in the transition and the basic problems that undermine progress in this small West African country remain. The elections will no doubt pose a threat to vested interests and stability. The new government will have to promote consensus and political pluralism, while the international community must carefully monitor developments in this crucial coming period. International Crisis Group Doing Business with the World Bank: When 'Development' Drives Inequality and Poverty The thing about 'international development' is that it’s a bit of a murky, catchall term. It’s got a good feel to it – if you’re involved in international development, you’re more often than not seen as one of the good guys − and it swirls around in a bucket of meaning alongside similarly noble-seeming notions such as 'foreign aid' and 'disaster relief'. 'International development' could be helping people escape from the ruins of an earthquake or the ruins of economic mismanagement, but it is generally understood to be about 'doing good'. How would you feel, then, if some projects that came under the umbrella of 'international development' were hiding something darker, less altruistic and far more self-interested? What if some groups charged with leading global development were actually doing more for a small group of transnational elites than for the 870 million people in the world suffering from chronic undernourishment or the 1.2 billion living on less than $1.25 a day? Think Africa Press Royal Navy supports maritime security on West African coast The Royal Navy (RN) Type 23 anti-submarine frigate HMS Portland arrived in Cape Town last Friday, having spent three months undertaking maritime security activities off the coast of West Africa. The Devonport based warship deployed on 13 January 2014 for a routine seven month Atlantic Patrol Tasking. After heading south, most of this time has been spent in West African waters until this week when she headed south again for South Africa. Commander Sarah West, Commanding Officer of HMS Portland and the first female Commander of a British Royal Navy ship, said that throughout the deployment, they will undertake maritime security operations, including counter narcotics and anti-piracy patrols. This will provide opportunities for the RN to work with other navies to strengthen ties and demonstrate the Royal Navy’s commitment to the region. DefenceWeb Wishful Thinking: The Obama Administration’s Rhetoric on Democracy and Human Rights in Egypt By all credible indicators, a democratic Egypt appears more remote than ever, but President Barack Obama’s administration doesn’t seem ready to admit this grim truth. A review of key statements on Egypt during the past month shows the wishful thinking shaping the discourse as the United States struggles to reconcile its declared support for democracy with the reality unfolding on the ground. Of course, what the United States says about Egypt’s democratic progress is only one dimension of a complex bilateral relationship that revolves, as President Obama has said, around cooperation on core security interests. But such rhetoric is a primary way in which the United States communicates its position on democracy and human rights, the most prominent and divisive issue in US-Egypt ties, and the one that President Obama has asserted will determine future US support for the country. Thus the statements are worth a close look. The Atlantic Council Keeping an Eye on Algeria John Kerry was in Algeria last week, an occasion that afforded Algerians a rare glimpse of their president, Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Despite the fact that he is running for re-election to his fourth term on April 17, Mr. Bouteflika has been seen in public infrequently over the last 12 months. Most of these instances are video snippets. One shows him in a dressing gown in a Paris hospital, where he was treated for a stroke, meeting with his prime minister and army chief of staff. Another shows him riding in his motorcade in Algiers, his rigid right arm upraised in an awkward attempt at a wave. In only half of the videos does he speak. A largely invisible and nearly mute presidential candidate is strange enough. What makes the Algerian elections even more remarkable is that Mr. Bouteflika is widely expected to win. The New York Times In Switch, Development Agency Welcomes Business and Technology to Poverty Fight Civic leaders recently broke ground on a lush cricket field here for the Nelson Mandela Children’s Hospital, a nearly $100 million state-of-the-art pediatric facility that is to provide care for youth throughout Southern Africa. Donations are pouring in, but not enough. Enter Rajiv Shah and the United States Agency for International Development, historically known for building primitive health clinics in remote pockets of the globe and more recently for creating a Twitter-like social media site to try to foment unrest in Cuba. Here in South Africa, in one of the signature new deals for the agency, Dr. Shah brought in corporate America — General Electric — to guarantee a portion of a bank loan to help buy $30 million in much-needed equipment for the hospital. “We can’t keep funding things and doing what we have done in the past,” said Dr. Shah, the ambitious 41-year-old U.S.A.I.D. administrator who is raising the profile of the Kennedy-era agency in more ways than one. The New York Times The Fashion Industry, Female Entrepreneurs and Fiscal Regimes in Conflict-Affected Regions Women in conflict-affected regions, like Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, are looking for more than humanitarian assistance and hand-outs. They want to be able to earn their way out of misery, inequality and deprivation, but a host of socio-cultural, economic and political factors make it difficult for them to do so. They have few marketable skills, limited opportunity and very little access to lucrative domestic and international markets. Several global fashion houses, like New York-based Kate Spade, have launched initiatives that aim to help lift some of these women out of poverty by effectively integrating them into global supply chains for specific products. However, this model is becoming increasingly uncompetitive in a number of countries because of punitive tax and customs regimes that render the initiative prohibitively costly. This article analyzes the outcome of research conducted by USIP's centers for Gender and Peacebuilding and Sustainable Economies in 2012, considers policy implications and provides a few recommendations. USIP
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    • Media Review for April 8, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Rwandans mark 20th anniversary of genocide amid reminders that justice has yet to be done Inside two adjacent houses in an upscale area of Rwanda’s capital, the unfinished business of the country’s 1994 genocide unfolds. Members of the Genocide Fugitive Tracking Unit work from here to bring to trial dozens of key perpetrators who fled abroad after the killings, some of them to the United States — and 20 years later, there’s still no end in sight. “In our lifetime we shall continue to pursue them, and those who come after us will continue to pursue them,” said Jean Bosco Mutangana, a Rwandan prosecutor who oversees the endeavor as head of the government’s international crimes unit. “You cannot have reconciliation without real, true justice being done.” The Washington Post Rwanda president hits out at France during genocide commemorations Rwandan President Paul Kagame took a thinly-veiled swipe at France on Monday, saying it was impossible to "change the facts" about the genocide 20 years ago. "The passage of time should not obscure the facts, lesson the responsibility, or turn victims into villains," he said in a speech during commemorations marking the 20th anniversary of the genocide. "People cannot be bribed or forced into changing their history, and no country is powerful enough, even when they think they are, to change the facts... After all, les faits sont tetus (facts are facts)," he said, saying the final phrase in French and drawing loud applause in the national stadium. Times Live Rwanda’s Uncertain Path to Reconciliation On the night of April 6, 1994, a private plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi was shot down as it approached Kigali airport. Within an hour, roadblocks appeared around the Rwandan capital as the populist Hutu Power radio station called for revenge against the country’s Tutsis. What followed was 100 days of violence, the speed and brutality of which has few historical parallels. By the time the genocide ended in July 1994, nearly one million people were dead with millions more displaced. Now, 20 years later, the Rwandan Genocide remains the primary example of international failure that came to shape global approaches to atrocity prevention and humanitarian intervention. While some lessons have been learned, it is also clear that the path to healing and reconciliation remains incomplete. UN Dispatch Blair: Rwanda needed ‘strong leadership’ after genocide Without “strong leadership,” Rwanda would have been unable to modernize and change at the pace it has in the 20 years since its horrific genocide, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair told CNN’s Fred Pleitgen, in for Christiane Amanpour, on Monday. [...] While many credit President Paul Kagame with those successes, some also accuse the leader of stifling Rwanda’s opposition and having authoritarian tendencies. [...] Blair – who as founder of the Africa Governance Initiative serves as an informal adviser to Kagame – about the president’s record. “You know the threat when people are in power too long, especially in Africa,” Pleitgen said. “You know that they can become authoritarian, that there is that danger and that that can lead to instability.” “Yes; that's absolutely true,” Blair said. “He is someone I know well. I don't think he's that type of person or leader.” CNN Q&A: Rwanda's controversial history As Rwanda officially commemorates 20 years since the genocide, some of those who were there to stop the war and re-build the country have become enemies of the state. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa is one such person. Former Lieutenant General Nyamwasa had been Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Army and head of Rwandan intelligence as well as Rwanda's ambassador to India. Once a close ally of Rwandan President Paul Kagame, he's now persona non grata. Nyamwasa says the very circumstances that pushed them to pick up arms back in 1990 are still very much alive in Rwanda today. Al Jazeera Fighting For Rwanda's Justice In France For more than a decade, Dafroza Gauthier and her husband, Alain, have hunted perpetrators of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. More than 800,000 people were killed in the genocide, most of them members of the Tutsi ethnic group. Earlier this month, the couple gave testimony against former Rwandan intelligence chief Pascal Simbikangwa in Paris. On March 14, Simbikangwa was sentenced to 25 years in prison for complicity in genocide and crimes against humanity. His was the first Rwandan genocide trial to take place in France. The conviction can be credited, in part, to the independent investigation conducted by an organization led by the Gautheirs, the Collective of Civil Plaintiffs for Rwanda. The group lends legal aid to victims of the killings in Dafroza's home country. NPR Creating Sustainable Peacekeeping Capability in Africa Nearly half of all uniformed peacekeepers are African and countries like Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal, and South Africa have provided troops to UN and AU missions almost continuously over the past decade. Despite such vast experience, African peacekeepers are often reliant on international partners for training before they can deploy on these missions. Institutionalizing a capacity-building model within African defense forces is a more sustainable approach that maintains a higher level of readiness to respond to emerging crises and contingencies on the continent. By Daniel Hampton, Africa Center for Strategic Studies U.S. foreign policy and Ugandan domestic politics collide Just weeks after the United States announced additional American troops and aircraft would be deployed to Uganda to hunt rebel leader Joseph Kony, Ugandan officials stormed a U.S. military-affiliated research institution, the Makerere University Walter Reed Project, in the country’s capital, Kampala. The Walter Reed Project raid highlights challenges to U.S.-Uganda relations, strained both by the fractured nature of U.S. foreign policy toward security allies like Uganda and the lack of coordination across Uganda’s numerous security agencies. The Washington Post France: southern Libya now a ‘viper’s nest’ for Islamist militants Southern Libya has become a “viper’s nest” for Islamist militants and the only way to tackle it is with a strong collective response from neighboring countries, France’s defense minister said in remarks published on Monday. “We are increasingly worried. It’s a viper’s nest in which jihadists are returning, acquiring weapons and recruiting,” Jean-Yves Le Drian said in an transcript of an interview provided by the ministry. “It is dangerous and the conditions are not in place to find a solution.” Two-and-a-half years after the fall of former leader Muammar Qaddafi, the oil-rich North African state is struggling to contain violence between rival forces, with Islamist militants gaining an ever-stronger grip on the south of the country. Al Arabiya Overturning 30 Years of Precedent: Is the Administration Ignoring the Dangers of Training Libyan Pilots and Nuclear Scientists? This is a joint hearing of House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on National Security and House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security. Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Can Libya Stay Together? [...] Notwithstanding reductionist narratives about the so-called “Arab Spring,” the uprising in Libya began as a struggle for succession of the east—a struggle which had been ongoing, with ebbs and flows, since Gaddhafi ended the federalist system of King Idriss I and integrated Cyrenaica and Fezzan more robustly into the state, largely against their will. National Interest Nigeria is losing this war: here’s how to win the fight against Boko Haram [...] How can Nigeria turn this around? There needs to be nothing short of a revolution in strategy and capabilities. Improving capabilities should firstly be about training. It is quite clear that the army is not properly trained to carry out a counter-insurgency campaign. They are still being trained as if they were fighting a conventional war. But 95 percent of the time counter-insurgency doesn’t involve shooting at anyone. It involves denying insurgents space and support by providing reliable security and winning the confidence of local people. No soldiers should be sent north unless they know how to do this. African Argument How Nigeria Became Africa's Largest Economy Overnight Something strange happened in Nigeria on Sunday: The economy nearly doubled, racking up hundreds of billions of dollars, ballooning to the size of the Polish and Belgian economies, and breezing by the South African economy to become Africa's largest. As days go, it was a good one. It was, in fact, a miracle borne of statistics: It had been 24 years since Nigerian authorities last updated their approach to calculating gross domestic product (GDP), a process known as "rebasing" that wealthy countries typically carry out every five years. When the Nigerian government finally did it this week, the country's GDP—the market value of all finished goods and services produced in a country—soared to $510 billion. The Atlantic Moroccan jihadist leader dies in Syria The Moroccan founder of al-Qaeda inspired jihadist group Sham al-Islam died Thursday (April 3rd), along with young fighters he had brought with him to Syria. Brahim Benchekroune (aka Ibrahim Bin Shakaran, or Abu Ahmad al-Maghribi) was killed during a clash with Syrian troops on a hilltop in Latakia, jihadist websites announced. Fellow Moroccans Anas Halaouia and Abdul Jalil al-Qadmiri, once jailed for the 2003 Casablanca bombings, died in the same battle on the northern coast of Syria. Social networks also reported the death of former Moroccan jihadist prisoner Najib al-Husseini. As many as 60 Moroccan jihadists may have been killed in the battle. Magharebia Egypt arrests a top aide to al-Qaida chief Egyptian authorities arrested a top aide to al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahri in a Nile Delta city on Monday and are interrogating him in an undisclosed location, officials said. Tharwat Salah Shehata was caught in an apartment in the 10th of Ramadan district of the city of Sharqiya, officials said. They said he is held over accusations of forming militant groups in western Egypt and alleged involvement in a spat of killings of Coptic Christians in eastern city of Benghazi in Libya, and that he has been training militants in eastern Libya - a hub of extremist Islamist militia groups. One of the groups, Ansar al-Shariah, has been blamed for the killing of the U.S. Ambassador to Libya and three other Americans in Benghazi in 2012. Officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak to the press. AP on Stars and Stripes A new plan to halt the downward spiral of the SA Defence Force After being in limbo for almost 16 years, with no review of its role since 1998, the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) now has a new blueprint for the future. The 2014 Defence Review was approved by cabinet and has been cleared for publication, following a lengthy process that started in mid-2011. It takes into account South Africa’s increasing role in peacekeeping in Africa and will form a basis for funding allocated to the military. However, the strategy should be implemented soon to stop the decline of the defence sector that has resulted from a lack of funds and overstretching of its capabilities. ISS Sudan's Bashir unveils political reforms Sudanese President Omar al Bashir has ordered the release of political prisoners and easing of restrictions on political parties to "encourage success in a national dialogue". Speaking on Sunday evening at the opening session of talks aimed at national reconciliation, involving the leaders of more than 50 political parties, Bashir said he would also remove restrictions on the press and made a commitment to allow armed groups' participation in the process. "The aim behind the decisions is preparing the stage for dialogue between the political parties for reaching a comprehensive peace in Sudan," Bashir said, according to state TV channel SUNA. Al Jazeera Chadian president meets Darfur rebels in Paris Chadian president Idriss Deby met with the chairman of Justice and Equality Movement Gibril Ibrahim in Paris on Saturday to discuss peace in Darfur, announced the group in a statement released on Sunday. The meeting which is the official first contact between the two Zaghawa leaders is the first since 2010 when Chad and Sudan signed an agreement ending tensions between the two neighbouring countries and providing to stop support to rebel groups from both sides. According to JEM spokesperson Gibreel Adam Bilal, Deby told Ibrahim that he wanted to meet him in response to the desire of the Zaghawa tribal leaders, who held two forums in the border town of Um Jaras where they “assured him they are tired from war and want peace”. Sudan Tribune Deng Alor Kuol, South Sudan's dissident negotiator The former cabinet minister who was arrested on charges of coup plotting on 16 December is now party to peace talks in Ethiopia and calling for a transitional government in South Sudan. Standing Six foot ten inches tall, welcoming hand outstretched and softly spoken but with a beaming smile, Deng Alor Kuol does not come across as the coup-plotter type. Yet it was his arrest with 10 others on 16 december 2013 in Juba on this very charge that triggered the implosion of the South Sudan government and weeks of murderous fighting. The Africa Report South Sudan Cannot Starve A staggering 3.7 million people, roughly one-third of the population, are facing starvation in South Sudan, where a civil war has created a humanitarian catastrophe. But many countries have ignored or given short shrift to the United Nations’ urgent appeal for aid. They must do better. Of the $1.27 billion the United Nations has requested for 2014, only $385 million has been received. Officials say South Sudan needs $230 million more in the next 60 days to avoid the worst starvation in Africa since the 1980s, when hundreds of thousands perished in Ethiopia. Along with food and water, seeds and farming tools are needed so crops can be planted before the end of May when rains bring the planting season to an end. This should not be happening. The New York Times Tunisia: Obama Announces U.S. Intent to Provide Loan Guarantee Worth U.S. $ 500 Million for Tunisia U.S. President Barack Obama received, Friday afternoon in the Oval Office at the White House, caretaker Prime Minister Mehdi Jomâa, at the end of a four-day official visit. In a joint statement before the talk between the two presidents in the Oval Office with attendance of U.S. vice President Joe Biden, President Obama announced the Administration's intent to provide a second loan guarantee for $ 500 million (795 Million dinars), to facilitate Tunisia's access to international capital markets. allAfrica EU/Africa: Some partners are more equal than others Evoking 'a partnership between equals', José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, celebrated progress on security, migration, trade and development at the end of the fourth European Union-Africa summit on 2-3 April in Brussels. However, in a year replete with African summits in China, India and the United States, Barroso's remarks reminded some delegates of George Orwell's dictum and one quipped that 'some partners are more equal than others'. Contrary to talk of its inexorable demise, the Euro-African relationship was growing stronger, Barroso insisted. His African Union counterpart, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, widely praised for her skilful co-chairing of the summit, spoke of the 'complementary comparative advantages' that will keep Africa and Europe locked together for decades to come. Africa Confidential Analysis: Is there any hope for Zimbabwe’s beleaguered opposition? After being pummeled in the last election, and riven with infighting and recrimination in the months since, Zimbabwe’s political opposition is at its lowest ebb in a decade. SIMON ALLISON asks the obvious question: if not Zanu, then who? The answer makes for disheartening reading – unless your name’s Robert Mugabe, and you’ve got a country you want to keep running. Daily Maverick Pope presses anti-AIDS chastity strategy in Africa Pope Francis has praised church workers in Africa who promote chastity as a key way to prevent the spread of HIV. Francis was speaking Monday at the Vatican to bishops from Tanzania. Many non-Catholic health care workers advocate condoms as an important weapon to fight the spread of the HIV virus that causes AIDS. The Vatican opposes condom use because church teaching forbids contraception. Francis praised church health care workers in Africa who care for those with HIV/AIDS and “all who strive diligently to educate people in the area of sexual responsibility and chastity.” AP on The Washington Post

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    • Media Review for April 7, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Rwanda bars France from genocide ceremony The French ambassador to Rwanda has been barred from attending events marking the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide, amid a major diplomatic row surrounding France's controversial role in the events of 1994. "Yesterday night the Rwandan foreign ministry telephoned to inform me that I was no longer accredited for the ceremonies," the French ambassador, Michel Flesch, said on Monday. The French government initially announced that it was pulling out of the events after President Paul Kagame again accused France, an ally of the Hutu nationalist government prior to the 1994 killings, of aiding the murder of 800,000 ethnic Tutsis. Al Jazeera Exclusive: Kagame discusses France’s role in Rwandan genocide In an exclusive interview with FRANCE 24, Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame discusses the genocide 20 years ago, how the country has changed since, France’s role during and after the mass killings, and regional tensions. The interview was recorded just hours before France pulled out of commemmorations marking the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide. France 24 How Abandonment In Rwandan Genocide Changed Peacekeepers' Role It's been 20 years since the Rwandan genocide, in which political ideology and ethnic hatred gave license to thousands of Hutus to kill Tutsi families. But ethnic ideology may not have unleashed the genocide if the international community had not stepped back and allowed it to happen. One notorious episode of abandonment changed forever the role of the United Nations peacekeeper. Early in the morning of April 7, 1994, thousands of Tutsis began arriving at a school on the outskirts of the capital, Kigali, seeking the protection of Belgian soldiers stationed there for the U.N. NPR US envoy to focus on genocide prevention in Africa U.S. Ambassador Samantha Power said Friday she’s going to Africa not just to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Rwanda genocide but to spotlight ethnic killings in Central African Republic and the potential for violence in Burundi. Power, a strong human rights advocate, is leading the U.S. delegation to the commemoration, starting Sunday evening, of the genocide in Rwanda in 1994. More than 500,000 minority Tutsis and moderate members of the Hutu majority — over one million by Rwanda’s count — were killed by Hutu extremists in the 100-day slaughter. “We’re trying to ensure that our vigil for those killed in Rwanda is also a commitment to remain vigilant and engaged as the potential for atrocities emerges elsewhere,” she said in an interview with The Associated Press. AP on The Washington Post Fight Like Soldiers, Die Like Children: Rwanda's horrific legacy of genocide – video In these extracts from Patrick Reed's documentary Fight Like Soldiers, Die Like Children, he explains how the world ignored the massacres in Rwanda 20 years ago – while former child soldiers explain how they are still used to kill. The Guardian After genocide, Rwanda looks to tech The Rwandan genocide still shadows Immaculee Mukamusoni’s life. Ethnic Hutu militias killed her mother, father and siblings, and for the next two decades, she had little support. Today, she and her husband work as day laborers on a farm to provide for their five children. But this past week, she boarded a bus that she hopes will transform her world. Outfitted with 20 laptops, it is a central part of a government initiative to bring technology to impoverished rural areas. Over the next two weeks, Mukamusoni will learn programs such as Microsoft Word and Excel, and will learn how to access Web sites and send e-mail. “It’s been 20 years, but we continue to struggle,” said Mukamusoni, 38, who has long sought full-time work. “I hope this knowledge will help our life.” The Washington Post Turkey’s Africa policies blend hard, soft power The Turkish government's obsession with becoming a global power is providing a study in contrasts: While Turkey has been using civilian planes to transport weapons to Nigeria, it also is employing navy combat vessels to hand out humanitarian assistance in Africa. Although confirmation by the Nigerian navy of the admission (in a phone call) by two senior Turkish officials that Turkish Airlines had been transporting weapons to Nigeria got lost in the election pandemonium at home, it was enough to generate misgivings in Africa of what kind of a mission Turkey was pursuing. But the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government, skillful in public diplomacy, is also launching a US-style campaign that may clear the qualms. The Turkish navy is now on its way to Africa on a humanitarian mission called "Beyond Horizons." Al Monitor Nigeria becomes Africa's largest economy Nigeria has overtaken South Africa as Africa's largest economy after a rebasing calculation almost doubled its gross domestic product to more than $500bn, data from the statistics office showed. GDP for 2013 in Africa's top oil producer was 80.22 trillion naira, or $509.9bn, the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics said on Sunday, up from the 42.3 trillion estimated before the rebasing, according to the Reuters news agency. Most governments overhaul GDP calculations every few years to reflect changes in output, but Nigeria had not done so since 1990, so sectors such as e-commerce, mobile phones and its prolific "Nollywood" film industry - now worth 1.4 percent of GDP, Kale said - had to be factored in to give a better picture. Al Jazeera Army, Boko Haram Working Together in Parts of Nigeria? A Nigerian soldier says he has witnessed incidents that suggest some Nigerian military commanders are working with Boko Haram, an Islamist militant group blamed for thousands of deaths since 2009. In an exclusive interview with VOA's Hausa service, he described how his military unit, based in the northeastern Borno State region, was ambushed by Boko Haram fighters. The soldier, who did not want to be identified, said the commander of a nearby military unit, based in the town of Bama, recently sought assistance from his unit in carrying out a raid. VOA Priests, nun kidnapped in Cameroon Two Italian priests and a Canadian nun have been kidnapped by gunmen in northern Cameroon, Italy's foreign ministry and media reports said on Saturday. The attack occurred overnight in the north of the west African country, which borders violence-wracked Nigeria, according to Italy's Ansa news agency. The Italian foreign ministry said that two priests from Italy's northern Vicenza region had been seized, but gave no other details. News 24 Nigerian forces killed hundreds of unarmed in Giwa Barracks incident: Amnesty Amnesty International, the London-based non-governmental human rights organization, has issued a report, “Nigeria: More than 1,500 Killed in North-Eastern Nigeria in Early 2014.” Of particular interest is its dissection of what happened on March 14 at Giwa Barracks, the largest military facility in Maiduguri, Borno State. The report finds that Boko Haram staged a successful break into the detention center and that it released all of those being held. Boko Haram gave those freed the option of joining them or going home. Most chose the home option. Boko Haram then withdrew. Shortly thereafter the security forces reoccupied the facility. With the help of the Civilian Joint Task Force, a locally based vigilante group, the security forces then hunted down all of those who had escaped and murdered most of them. Amnesty estimates that over 600 people were killed. CS Monitor Fuel shortages dog Africa’s biggest oil producer The man in the large SUV forces his way to the front of the line at the gas station, ignoring the blaring horns and threats of fisticuffs from drivers who have slept in their cars and waited for more than 12 hours for the scarce fuel. Raw anger and frayed tempers give way to resignation as the big man wins, waved in by fuel attendants, no doubt expecting a bribe. Nigeria, despite being Africa’s biggest petroleum producer, has been dogged by a fuel shortage for weeks. In this West African nation that does not only mean scarce gas to keep cars on the road. It means no diesel to run generators that are the lifeblood of industry in a country where frequent power cuts last hours. It means no kerosene for stoves used to cook meals by tens of millions of poor people. The Washington Post Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II): The Boko Haram Insurgency Boko Haram’s four-year-old insurgency has pitted neighbour against neighbour, cost more than 4,000 lives, displaced close to half a million, destroyed hundreds of schools and government buildings and devastated an already ravaged economy in the North East, one of Nigeria’s poorest regions. It overstretches federal security services, with no end in sight, spills over to other parts of the north and risks reaching Niger and Cameroon, weak countries poorly equipped to combat a radical Islamist armed group tapping into real governance, corruption, impunity and underdevelopment grievances shared by most people in the region. Boko Haram is both a serious challenge and manifestation of more profound threats to Nigeria’s security. Unless the federal and state governments, and the region, develop and implement comprehensive plans to tackle not only insecurity but also the injustices that drive much of the troubles, Boko Haram, or groups like it, will continue to destabilise large parts of the country. Yet, the government’s response is largely military, and political will to do more than that appears entirely lacking. International Crisis Group Nigeria preparing to receive ex-US Coast Guard cutter Gallatin Delivery of the US Coast Guard cutter Gallatin to the Nigerian Navy moved a step closer on Monday when the vessel was decommissioned after 45 years of service. During a ceremony at its home base of Charleston, South Carolina, the vessel was formally transferred to the Nigerian Navy. Personnel from the Nigerian Navy are already in Charleston for training on the vessel prior to its delivery voyage. The Navy Times said Gallatin has had a busy career, covering such missions as maritime law enforcement, humanitarian relief, search and rescue and ambassadorial duties. Last year the cutter seized several tons of cocaine being smuggled from Latin America and the Caribbean. Apart from drug missions, Gallatin was involved in dealing with the mass migration of 27 000 Cubans in 1994; the search for the crew of the HMS Bounty during Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and in responding to the St Vincent volcano eruption of 1979. DefenceWeb Nigeria gun attack: Zamfara 'cattle rustlers' blamed Seventy-nine people are said to have been killed in northern Nigeria, in an attack blamed by police on gunmen from the Fulani community. The attack targeted a meeting of community leaders and vigilante groups in Galadima village, Zamfara state, a police spokesman told AFP news agency. The meeting was discussing action against robbers and cattle rustlers. Fulani herdsmen and farmers from other ethnic groups have frequently clashed in Nigeria over land and faith. BBC Tribal clashes in southern Egypt leave at least 23 dead At least 23 people were killed and 31 injured in tribal clashes Friday in the southern Egyptian province of Aswan, according to official media. The Egyptian army's chief spokesman, Col. Ahmed Ali, said Saturday that military forces had been deployed in an attempt to restore order. The confrontations did not appear to have a political dimension, but the army nonetheless suggested, without immediately providing proof, that the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood might have had some role in the bloodshed. Reports said the fighting was triggered when students from a Nubian family sprayed slogans on walls denigrating members of an Arab clan. AP It's April, which means Eritrea's refugees are headed north [...] About half of the Eritrean refugees who lived through the winter in the neighborhood’s immense condominiums departed for Sudan during February — the next leg of their journey as they wend their way northwest in the hope of eventually reaching Europe. March is the right month, according to popular wisdom around here, to start the journey from Sudan's capital Khartoum to Libya. The Sahara desert is not too hot and the waters of the Mediterranean Sea will be calmer by April than they have been during the winter. Timing is essential for this multinational trek due to the risks. Even if refugees avoid the smugglers who want to sell them to organ traffickers, they could die of thirst while crossing the desert, or storms could destroy their boats at sea. Globalpost Obama praises Tunisia as model of Arab Spring U.S. President Barack Obama on Friday praised Tunisia as the poster child of the Arab Spring, as Washington unveiled $500 million in new assistance to help revive the North Africa nation’s faltering economy as it continues its march toward democracy. Obama said that Tunisia, where the Arab Spring began when fruit vendor Mohammad Bouazizi set himself alight in 2010, had witnessed the kind of progress lacking in some other nations in the region during the visit of Tunisian Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa to the U.S.. “What we’ve seen in the years since is that some countries have had difficulty in this transition,” Agence France-Presse quoted Obama, who welcomed Jomaa to the Oval Office, as saying. Al Arabiya Prospects for achieving maritime security in SADC Although the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is far removed from the epicentres of the recent piracy phenomenon in the Gulfs of Aden and Guinea, there are many useful lessons in maritime security from this region that can be shared with the rest of Africa. African governments and security stakeholders face a number of challenges in governing their maritime domains. SADC comprises states with some of the better capacity for maritime security, so exploring perspectives from South Africa, Mozambique and Mauritius provides important insights into how these challenges are being met. ISS As Benghazi falls, so goes Libya Libya's General National Congress (GNC) on Sunday (March 30th) agreed to replace the legislative body with a new House of Representatives. As the country prepares for its next try at governance, Magharebia visited Susa to ask activist and former thwar Adel Elhasy about the interplay between politics and security. Unless things change across the board, the former field commander of the Free Libyans Brigade sees a grim future for his country. Magharebia UN fires warning on runaway arms trade and Africa conflicts The United Nations is considering tougher sanctions on the arms trade in Africa that has left sophisticated weaponry in the hands of terror and rebel groups. At the same time, the world body is seeking to transform some of its peacekeeping deployments in Africa into war-fighting brigades. Jan Eliasson, UN Deputy Secretary-General, said last week that the illicit arms trade has reached alarming rates in Africa, especially in the cases of Nigeria, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic, largely explaining the unending conflicts in those countries. Mr Eliasson’s comments came as the UN sounded an alarm over worsening violence in Sudan’s Darfur region and the CAR, with the UN Security Council demanding the strengthening of the Darfur peacekeeping mission. The East African It's Time for Africa’s Stolen Artefacts to Come Home Africa is often portrayed as a place deprived of creativity and innovation. In his 1965 book The Rise of Christian Europe, for example, the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper famously described Africa's history as nothing but “the unrewarding gyrations of barbarous tribes in picturesque but irrelevant corners of the globe." Unfortunately, this diminished sense of Africa's memory and self-worth has also seeped into the consciousness of many on the continent. Africa's remarkable artefacts debunk the notion of it as a place of creative scarcity, but the problem is that, looted under colonialism, these impressive and extensive historic achievements have long laid out of the reach of Africans both physically and symbolically. Like the Elgin Marbles, it may be time for Africa's great works to come home too - where they can furnish their homelands and bring pride to the descendants of their makers. Think Africa Press

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    • Media Review for April 4, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      Chad to withdraw troops from Central African Republic Chad is to withdraw its troops from the African Union (AU) peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (CAR), the country announced Thursday. Around 850 Chadian troops are taking part in the AU’s 6,000-strong CAR mission, known as MISCA, deployed to the country in December last year in an effort to restore peace amid an outbreak of inter-religious violence. However, Chad’s forces in CAR have been accused of siding with mainly Muslim Seleka rebels, whose seizure of power last year sparked tit-for-tat violence with Christian militia, known as “anti-balaka”. France 24 Central African Republic: are we ignoring Rwanda all over again? Never again, they said, as they counted bodies left behind by the Rwandan genocide, "they" being pretty much everybody with even a passing interest in the African continent: Rwandans, of course; their neighbours; international organisations; NGOs; colonial governments; and the legion of armchair spectators, watching the carnage from their living room TVs and hurriedly pledging another £10 donation to Oxfam. This was an atrocity which no one, excepting perhaps the Jews, could truly comprehend, but it didn’t mean its devastation didn’t reverberate within each of us, our shock at what had happened tinged by our collective guilt at not having done enough to prevent it. The Guardian Mali reports three suspected Ebola cases Mali said on Thursday it had detected three suspected victims of Ebola, the deadly disease that has killed 84 people in Guinea. "Three suspected cases of haemorrhagic fever have been detected in the country. Samples have been taken and sent abroad for analysis," the country's Health Minister Ousmane Kone said. Pending results from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where the samples were sent, the patients were isolated and were receiving appropriate medication. The government said in a statement the patients' condition was currently improving. The Telegraph Guinea's Ebola Crisis: An Interactive Guide More than 78 people in the African nation of Guinea are suspected to have died since January from one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases: Ebola. According to the international aid organization Doctors Without Borders (MSF), the Ebola outbreak's scale is unprecedented. "We are facing an epidemic of a magnitude never before seen in terms of the distribution of cases in the country," Mariano Lugli, coordinator of MSF's project in Conakry, told Reuters. The first new cases of the killer disease appeared more than six weeks ago in southern Guinea's, but it took authorities until last week to identify the killer as Ebola, which allowed the infection to spread. The World Health Organization announced Monday there had been two confirmed cases already in Liberia. The Huffington Post Europe Pledges Peacekeepers, Trade Ties for Africa African and European Union leaders have wrapped up a two-day summit aimed at improving trade ties, but the talks in Brussels were overshadowed by the worsening crisis in the Central African Republic. Over the past 10 days, U.N. officials say more than 60 people have been killed in sectarian violence in the Central African Republic capital, Bangui. Recent violence there and in other C.A.R. cities has prompted tens of thousands of Muslims to flee their communities. The European Union announced Wednesday it would deploy more troops alongside the 2,000 French soldiers and 6,000 African peacekeepers already in the country. But on Thursday, Chad said it is pulling its 850 peacekeepers out of the country, following accusations that the troops have sided with Muslims and Muslim rebels being attacked by the largely Christian anti-balaka militia. VOA Illicit Financial Flows: The Elephant in the Room at the EU-Africa Summit A $35 million mansion in California, artwork totaling €18 million ($25 million), and a $33 million dollar private jet. These sound like items purchased by the world’s wealthiest oligarchs, Hollywood actors or investment bank CEOs, right? Well, they were actually acquired by Teodorin Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang. When Teodoro convenes with other leaders for this week’s EU-Africa summit, a wide range of topics will be covered, but there’s one issue in particular that should be given a loudspeaker during the talks in Brussels: illicit financial flows. Think Africa Press At Quiet Rebel Base, Plotting an Assault on South Sudan’s Oil Fields [...] Mr. Machar is plotting the offensive on the oil fields from a hide-out in Upper Nile State. It is a quiet outpost, save the incessant chirping of birds, and the former vice president keeps company with a small team of bodyguards. He has a satellite phone and a shiny touch-screen tablet in a battered brown case, and in his free time he is working through a paperback copy of “Why Nations Fail.” The book, he says, inspires him to reflect on whether he is making the right decisions, though he holds Mr. Kiir responsible for South Sudan’s bloody conflict. “I think a government which kills his own people is discredited,” he said. “The presence of forces loyal to Salva Kiir in Paloch, to buy more arms to kill our people, to bring foreigners to interfere and kill more of our people, is not acceptable to us.” The New York Times S Sudan on verge of Africa's worst famine War-torn South Sudan could become the scene of the worst famine catastrophe in Africa in decades without more aid and a ceasefire to let farmers reach their fields, the UN warned Thursday. "If we miss the planting season, there will be a catastrophic decline in food security," Toby Lanzer, the UN's top aid official in the country, told reporters in Geneva. "What will strike that country, and it will hit about seven million people, will be more grave than anything that continent has seen since the mid-1980s," he warned, referring to the massive famine in Ethiopia that shocked the world's conscience. News 24 'Who Am I to Judge': Will the Pope Condemn Homophobia in Uganda? On Monday, thousands of Ugandans rallied in Kampala to celebrate the recent passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act, a law targeting Uganda's LGBT community with harsh legal sanctions and possible life imprisonment. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, who signed the act into law in late February, spoke at the rally and denounced oral sex, "sodomy," and Western threats to withdraw aid from the East African country. He was joined by Catholic, Anglican, Muslim, and other religious leaders, who echoed Museveni's condemnations of homosexuality. Archbishop Cyprian Lwanga of Kampala, the leader of Uganda's Catholic Church, delivered a closing prayer in which he exhorted the crowd to pray for those "who had been led astray by this vice of homosexuality." The Atlantic Kerry in Morocco for security talks U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry arrived Thursday in Rabat, a regional ally of Washington which nevertheless ruffled Moroccan feathers last year by calling for greater scrutiny of human rights in Western Sahara. Kerry was due to meet Prime Minister Abdelilah Benkirane, before holding talks on Friday with Foreign Minister Salaheddine Mezouar and other top officials focused notably on security and commercial cooperation. Before arriving in Rabat, Kerry visited Morocco's neighbor and regional arch-rival Algeria, with the two countries pledging to work together to combat terrorism in the Sahel region. Al Arabia Algeria’s Role in African Security - By Benjamin Nickels Secretary of State John Kerry’s visit to Algeria provides an opportunity to discuss security cooperation and counterterrorism with a critical if ambivalent partner. With fallout from the Arab Spring and the Mali Crisis creating chaos along its borders and the In Aminas attack highlighting insecurity in its own territory, Algeria has been forced, albeit reluctantly, to move toward greater strategic cooperation with its neighbors. But these recent moves should not overshadow Algeria’s long-standing investments in regional security. Indeed, Algeria has become ubiquitous in the structures of African security cooperation. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Algerian presidential elections: The burlesque, the tragicomic and the farcical Algeria's next presidential elections will be held on 17 April 2014 and for the last few months; this important electoral rendezvous showed all the hallmarks of a masquerade, consistent with almost all the elections in the history of the Algerian state since independence in 1962. Elections in Algeria are not particularly known to be free, fair or transparent. They are often rigged, biased and outcomes are usually decided before the voting has begun, by the different factions of the regime and the associated interests groups. When I think of these particular elections, the Algerian hilarious comedy Carnaval Fi Dashra (Carnival in a Village, released in 1994) comes to mind, where the main character Makhlouf Bombardier, after becoming a mayor with the help of a shady entourage and an extravagant campaign, tries to organise an international film festival that will rival with the Tunisian Carthage edition. He gets involved in corruption and embezzlement but that does not halt his ambition to run for the presidency of the republic. Pambazuka News Statesmen's Forum: Tunisian Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa Mehdi Jomaa serves as the prime minister of Tunisia, a position he has held since January 2014. Prior to that, he served as the minister of industry in Tunisia’s second transitional government (March 2013-January 2014). Mr. Jomaa is an engineer by training and before entering government had a successful career in the private sector, where he focused on aeronautical, defense, automobile, railway, oil, and general industries operations. He has served in numerous management positions including as general manager of Hutchinson Aerospace, a global company with over 30,000 employees, where he held several senior management positions from 1988-2012. Center for Strategic and International Studies Egypt’s probable president: Pretending to be a civilian IN A soft-spoken television address announcing his bid for Egypt’s presidency, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi intimated that his would not be a traditional election campaign. The caution seems unneeded. Few Egyptians expect that the field-marshal, a former defence minister and head of military intelligence, will have to exert himself much before coasting to victory in the polls, now scheduled for May 26th. As leader of the coup that toppled President Muhammad Morsi last July, Mr (as he now is) Sisi is in effect the candidate of Egypt’s state, backed by its 7m-strong civil service as well as the powerful army and police. The Economist Kenya’s war on terror is east Africa’s looming nightmare On the evening of April 1 a black car slowed down in front of the law courts at Shanzu, some 15km north of Kenya's coastal tourist city of Mombasa. Its occupants in the still-moving car emptied their guns at a party of five men who were walking just outside the courtyard. Once the dust and screams cleared, radical Muslim preacher Abubakar Shariff Ahmed lay dead in a pool of blood, felled by bullets to his head and torso. His 20-year companion was also killed, while the other three survived. In truth, few Kenyans bar his supporters will admit to a sense of schadenfraude at the demise of the former grave-digger known as Makaburi (Kiswahili for grave). The fiery cleric had been a hugely divisive figure, especially after media interviews in which he said the Westgate mall terrorist attack in Nairobi last September was justified. Mail and Guardian Punitive aid cuts disrupt healthcare in Uganda Since the enactment of a draconian anti-homosexuality bill in Uganda just over a month ago, donors have been slashing or suspending aid to the country in protest. Health officials, activists and NGOs warn that this could have a major impact on healthcare services, particularly for HIV/AIDS patients. Project and budget support worth about US$140 million has been suspended or redirected by the World Bank, US and several European countries, including Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway and Denmark, after Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni signed the act into law on 24 February 2014. Under the new law, persons found guilty of “homosexual acts” can be jailed for up to 14 years, and up to a life sentence for “aggravated” cases, such as those committed by someone who is HIV-positive, or those involving minors, the disabled and serious offenders. IRIN Nigeria's Lamido Sanusi wins damages case in Lagos court A Nigerian court has awarded about $300,000 (£180,000) in damages to suspended central bank chief Lamido Sanusi after he filed a harassment case against the government. The court also ordered that Mr Sanusi be given back his passport, and he should not be detained unlawfully. He was briefly detained in February, soon after his suspension. Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan suspended him after he claimed that $20bn in oil revenue had gone missing. Mr Sanusi's passport was seized on 20 February at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria's main city. BBC Boko Haram chief has little control over fighters Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau likely has little control over his fighters, the International Crisis Group said on Thursday, calling the Islamist terror group "more dispersed than ever". A new report from the Brussels-based think-tank said many of Boko Haram's senior commanders are probably based outside Nigeria, including in neighbouring Cameroon and Niger. Shekau, declared a global terrorist by the United States which put a $7m bounty on his head, frequently issues fiery video messages that claim credit for attacks. News 24 Power failure downed Predator returning from Africa mission A loss of power caused a remotely piloted MQ-1B Predator to crash into the Mediterranean Sea last fall while returning from a mission over Africa, the Air Force announced late Wednesday. A malfunctioning power converter in the aircraft’s control module, which led to the loss of stabilizer control and engine power, caused the mishap, according to an abbreviated accident investigation report released by Air Combat Command. The aircraft, deployed from the 432nd Wing at Creech Air Force Base, Nev., was returning from a 20-hour intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance mission for AFRICOM, a news release said. Stars and Stripes Rwanda: a puzzling tale of growth and political repression – get the data Twenty years after the 1994 genocide that claimed the lives of 800,000 people, much of the international commentary about Rwanda swings between extremes – astonishment at the country's dramatic public health and economic success, and condemnation of alleged political repression under President Paul Kagame. Development indicators tell a story of significant changes in education, public health and the economy – Rwandans are living longer and are better off economically than 20 years ago – but extreme poverty remains a reality for more than 60% of the population. Nearly 620,000 tourists visted Rwanda in 2010, according to World Bank figures – just short of a sixfold increase on the 105,000 recorded in 2000. Major retail chains have also set up shop in the capital, Kigali, as have several commercial banks. The Guardian Guinea-Bissau's ex-President Kumba Yala dies Guinea-Bissau's ex-President Kumba Yala, who ruled the former Portuguese colony from 2000 until 2003, has died. A former philosophy teacher, Mr Yala won presidential elections in 2000 following a bitter civil war in the late 1990s. He was ousted three years later in one of the West African nation's many military takeovers. His death at the age of 61 comes 10 days before elections intended to draw a line under the latest coup, in 2012. Guinea-Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world and has been further destabilised by the booming illegal drugs trade from Latin America, which uses it as a staging post for the European market. BBC

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    • Media Review for April 3, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

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      “Comprehensive Approaches Required”: A Review of Africa Center Research on Terrorism As the terrorist threat continues to evolve in North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, the Africa Center through its various programs continues to bring together African, American and European civilian and military professionals to discuss its dimensions and possible solutions. Africa Center for Strategic Studies France, Germany unveil new partnership at EU-Africa summit African and European leaders held crisis talks Wednesday on the "terrifying" violence in the Central African Republic, where peacekeepers have been unable to stop a deadly spiral of Christian-Muslim strife. As some 80 leaders from the two continents kicked off a mammoth summit that locked down parts of Brussels, France and Germany announced a new partnership for Africa aimed at promoting peace and development as well as combatting the effects of climate change. AFP Sinking in Shifting Sands: the EU in North Africa The EU’s influence in Northern Africa wasn't strong before the Arab Spring. And now, warns the CSS’ Lisa Watanabe, things are only about to get worse. That is, of course, unless Brussels develops a bolder and more coherent vision for engaging with its southern neighborhood. This chapter of Strategic Trends 2014 can also be accessed here. The Arab uprisings and their aftermath have important strategic repercussions for the EU. The EU’s already questionable influence in North Africa risks being further eroded. Ill-equipped to respond to changing dynamics in the sub-region, the EU may struggle to secure its long-term interests. The shortcomings of the EU’s approach are made all the more flagrant against the backdrop of increased engagement of regional powers in North Africa. Absent of a bolder and more coherent strategic vision towards its southern neighbourhood, the EU is on course to miss a vital opportunity. International Relations and Security Network - ETH Zurich The staggering cost of armed violence to Africa As the fourth EU-Africa summit takes place in Brussels, we note that the theme “Investing in People, Prosperity and Peace” reflects exactly Africa’s needs, and emphasizes Oxfam’s concerns about armed violence and conflict in Africa which are at the base of the decade-long campaign for the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) to curb the irresponsible arms trade. Oxfam research that was published in our report Africa’s Missing Billions showed that between 1990 and 2007 the cost of armed violence and conflict to Africa was $300 billion – approximately the same as the aid money that flowed into the continent during that time. Losses continue at around $18 billion a year. Conflict shrinks the economies of affected African countries by at least 15% a year. Oxfam Catch-22 in the Sahel In the relative backwater of U.S. foreign policy that is the Sahel, U.S. engagement has in recent years has been a function of the vital, albeit limited, national-security interest in countering the threat that Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other violent extremist organizations pose to U.S. interests. Yet, U.S. engagement in this part of Africa is much more complex than drone bases and military exercises. In fact, one of the main tools of U.S. engagement in the Sahel and Maghreb, the Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), spans the “three Ds”—Diplomacy, Defense, and Development. TSCTP is an outgrowth of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a post-9/11 initiative that developed from the U.S. government’s concern that the region’s weak states could become a safe haven for terrorist groups linked with Al Qaeda to launch attacks against U.S. interests. National Interest UK Government to Say Sorry for Colonialism Think Africa Press has learnt the UK government will issue an "unequivocal apology" for its colonial past later today. According to sources close to the matter, the government held a cabinet meeting on 31 March at which those present gradually came to the decision that its previous position of "expressing regret without accepting responsibility" was "morally untenable." The announcement is expected to be made by Foreign Secretary William Hague and Prime Minister David Cameron this afternoon in the Rose Garden of 10 Downing Street, weather permitting. At the press conference, it is believed that the government will also reveal plans to establish a committee to look into paying reparations. Think Africa Press U.S. sending 175 Marines to Romania as part of Africa crisis team The Pentagon said on Wednesday it was bolstering the size of its Europe-based African crisis response force to 675 Marines, sending 175 new troops to a Romanian base near the Black Sea at a time of tensions over Russia's annexation of part of Ukraine. The Marines will be part of a team headquartered in Moron, Spain, and primarily meant for operations in Africa, although they can be sent anywhere, a Pentagon spokesman said. The decision to base the additional Marines in Romania was made last year before the current crisis, he said. But it came on the heels of news on Tuesday that General Philip Breedlove, the top U.S. officer in Europe, is considering moving a U.S. warship into the Black Sea in the coming days to reassure NATO allies and exercise with partners. Globalpost Kenya security: Will action against refugees make a difference? On March 25, Kenya's Cabinet Secretary for the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government, Joseph Ole Lenku, issued a directive to all refugees based in Kenya's towns and cities to immediately relocate to Kakuma and Dadaab, two huge overcrowded refugee camps in the north-west and east of the country. According to the minister, "emerging security challenges" in Kenya's urban areas necessitated this move. Al Jazeera Gambia: Tackling Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing in Gambia The Inter-Governmental Action Group Against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA) and the Gambia Financial Intelligence Unit have determinedly collaborated to put in place anti-money laundering and counter financing terrorism strategies that would prevent or frustrate the efforts of money launders and other financial criminals in The Gambia. This involves stakeholders from the Central Bank of The Gambia, commercial banks, finance, interior and justice ministries, real estate industry, the Gambia Police Force, the immigration department and other relevant sectors. allAfrica South Africa's Illegal Gold Mines In the 1970s, South Africa was the world's most prolific exporter of gold. Over the years, industrial decline has seen widespread closures of the mines across the country. However, Johannesburg sits on the biggest gold basin ever discovered. It's perhaps not surprising that many of these abandoned mines have seen a recent boom in illegal mining activity. Every day, hundreds of illegal gold miners—known as Zama Zamas—descend deep beneath the surface. The miners often spend weeks underground, toiling away at the country's untapped gold reserves. Observers have suggested that illegal mining is now so widespread, black-market gold arguably supports the communities once subsistent on the same mines they worked in before they shut down. Vice S Sudan peace talks break as crisis worsens Peace talks aimed at ending over three months of civil war in South Sudan have been paused until the end of April, rebels said on Wednesday, despite UN warnings that millions of lives are at risk. There has been little progress after weeks of talks in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. A third round which started late last month was largely reduced to squabbling in luxury hotels over who could attend the negotiations. Violence erupted in South Sudan on 15 December between forces loyal to President Salva Kiir and fighters loosely allied to former vice president Riek Machar. News 24 Postcolonial Resentments Loom Over Meeting of Europeans and Africans [...] “Past summits have been unable to escape the taint of Europe’s past imperialism in Africa,” Alex Vines, an Africa expert at Chatham House, a policy institute in London, said in a commentary on EUobserver, an online newspaper. “But both Africa and Europe have changed. With multiple suitors competing for access to Africa’s natural resources and markets, European countries can no longer assume advantage of access as a neocolonial legacy.” “Reciprocally,” he added, “African states should not assume that rhetoric about imperialism will continue to hold water as a means to influence Europe.” The organizers also withheld an invitation to President Omar Hassan al-Bashir of Sudan, who is wanted by the International Criminal Court in The Hague on war crimes charges. The New York Times U.S., Algeria vow to work together to fight terrorism The United States and Algeria Thursday pledged to work together to battle terrorism, as U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry paid his first visit to the north African nation. "Algeria which has paid a heavy toll to terrorism, will never bow in front of this scourge," Algerian Foreign Minister Ramtane Lamamra said at the opening of strategic talks between the two countries. "Terrorism knows no boundaries, has no creed, no religion and targets all nations," he added. Al Arabiya Tunisia at the Crossroads On April 4th, Tunisian Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa, who took office in December, will visit Washington to meet with President Obama. He will seek greater US support to his country, the birthplace of the Arab Spring, as it strives to combat terrorism and salvage the economy. With a stagnant economy, continued political uncertainty, and a terrorist problem, Tunisia encapsulates the problems that have emerged from the uprisings of three years ago. Whatever happens in Tunisia, however, will not stay in Tunisia; and so it behooves Washington and Tunis—as they launch their Strategic Dialogue this week—to seek the best possible outcome together. World Affairs Extremist Qur'anic schools take hold in Libya In the absence of state institutions, Qur'anic schools in Libya are left to operate on their own. But residents of Benghazi are expressing alarm at the growing number of radical preachers and their impact on kids. With the infusion of global extremists who flocked to Libya after the February 17th revolution, citizens fear some schools are being used as a cover to instil radical ideology in youths. Libyan Observatory for Human Rights President Abdul Nasser Ahmed said that there was "no monitoring on Qur'anic schools these days due to the weakness of state institutions and absence of the Ministry of Religious Endowments' oversight role". Magharebia Little-known jihadist group claims Cairo bombings A little-known jihadist group, Ajnad Misr, claimed responsibility for bomb attacks near Cairo University on Wednesday that killed an Egyptian police general and wounded five other policemen. Two bombs targeting security posts near the university exploded in quick succession, killing Brigadier General Tarek al-Mergawi, followed by a third blast as police and journalists gathered at the scene. Ajnad Misr (Soldiers of Egypt) said on its Facebook and Twitter accounts that it carried out the bombings in response to an "arrest campaign (targeting)... our women and our girls". It did not elaborate on the motive, but explained that the last bomb was detonated later than planned to avoid civilian casualties. Channel News Asia Why Egypt is in a spiral of despair In the days of Hosni Mubarak's long rule, Egypt's National Democratic party of which he was chairman was never a political party, not in the sense that people in the west understand the term. It was a vast collection of interest groups with no real ideology. Socialists, Islamists, capitalists and – mostly – opportunists happily resided in the same body. It was, of course, dismantled after Mubarak's fall. Why do I mention this? Because it is one of the reasons why things in Egypt became so confusing post-Mubarak. Each and every institution except the army became a battlefield for control, including the judiciary. Sleeping cells of the Muslim Brotherhood reactivated, the opportunists changed sides and the old guard sensed danger. The Guardian Kenya and Somalia must work together on post al-Shabaab security Kenya’s handling of the war on terror and, broadly, its fight against al-Shabaab provide clues for a better understanding of the Likoni church attack and the recent escalation of violence in Kenya. For al-Shabaab – the alleged perpetrator of the Likoni attack – just like al-Qaeda, there is a logic to targeting places of worship. They intend to drive a wage between faiths and ignite a conflict between Muslims and non-Muslims. Al Qaeda did it in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Egypt and Mali. At the national level, however, Kenya is playing into al-Shabaab’s hands. In 2012, a year after the intervention in Somalia, a draconian anti-terrorism bill was passed. Kenyan law enforcement has used the bill as a blank check against any communities that it does not entirely trust – especially Kenyan Somalis. While marginalization of Somalis is nothing new, the new law provides a degree of legitimacy for it. African Argument World woos Africa with summits Washington Will host the US-Africa summit in August, but it is already late to the game of African summitry. Japan hosted its first Africa summit in 1993, turkey in 2008 and Ahailand launched its Africa Initiative in 2013. At the meeting of the India-Africa Project Partnership in March 2014, Delhi announced a new line of credit from Exim Bank. The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) tends to be the best-attended conference, also offering the biggest financial deals. The Africa Report 'Inequality can break down social order' Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has been working on the Fragile States project together with the African Development Bank. A new report will look at conflict-torn African states such as Mali, Somalia, and the Central African Republic. At the EU-Africa summit, Johnson-Sirleaf is demanding that African states resolve their conflicts and work on lasting blueprints for peace. DW: What are the main things Europe can do to help fragile states in Africa? Deutsche Welle US Seeking Lessons of 1994 Rwanda Genocide Two decades have passed since hundreds of thousands of people were killed in the Rwanda genocide, and Western powers were accused of standing by and allowing it to happen. Experts say there are lessons to be learned on how to prevent such tragedies in the future. The world was shocked when an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were massacred in about 100 days, starting April 7, 1994. Mike Nkuzumuwami stands by the rows of human skulls and bones that form a memorial to those who died in the redbrick church that was the scene of a massacre during the 1994 genocide, and which he helps to look after, in the village of Nyarubuye, eastern Rwanda, March 27, 2014. Members of the ethnic Hutu majority killed about 70 percent of the minority Tutsis living in Rwanda, and many moderate Hutus. VOA Rwanda genocide: the fight to bring the perpetrators to justice Twenty years after the Rwandan genocide barely 70 individuals out of thousands involved in the 1994 massacres have been convicted by the UN-backed court that was designed to deliver justice. The international criminal tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) pioneered the first genocide trials in Africa but after almost 20 years of legal argument and an estimated bill of $1.7bn (£1bn), only a tiny proportion of the Rwandan malefactors has been brought to justice. Next year the ICTR's courtrooms at Arusha, in neighbouring Tanzania, are scheduled to be handed back to local authorities and returned to use as an international conference centre. The ICTR dealt with the government leadership and those who motivated the interahamwe militias. Excessive court delays, however, caused cases to drag on for up to 10 years. The Guardian Capt Mbaye Diagne: A good man in Rwanda This is the story of the bravest man I have ever met. I’ve covered many wars and seen many acts of courage. But for sheer grit and determination I’ve never known anyone to compare with Capt Mbaye Diagne, a United Nations peacekeeper in Rwanda. I was there in 1994, when 800,000 people were killed in 100 days, and I returned to reconstruct the story of this remarkable, charismatic officer from the west African state of Senegal. BBC

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    • Media Review for April 1, 2014

      Please note: The following news items are presented here for informational purposes. The views expressed within them are those of the authors and/or individuals quoted, not those of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the National Defense University, or the Department of Defense.

      ###

      Kenyan Nairobi explosions kill six in Eastleigh Six people have been killed in explosions in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, officials say. Several people were wounded in the attack, which took place in the Eastleigh suburb of the city. More than 200 people were arrested in Eastleigh following the explosions, a police spokeswoman said. Eastleigh is known as "Little Mogadishu" because of its large Somali population. Although no group said it was behind the latest attack, many are blaming it on the Somali militant group al-Shabab. BBC ICC Postpones Kenyatta Trial to October The International Criminal Court on Monday postponed Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta's repeatedly-delayed trial over post-election violence to October, saying it was giving Kenya more time to look for documents wanted by prosecutors. "Today the Trial Chamber adjourned the case against Uhuru Kenyatta until October 7," the Hague-based ICC said in a statement. The east African country is given "a further time-limited opportunity to provide certain records which the prosecution previously requested on the basis that the records are relevant to a central allegation to the case," the ICC said. Naharnet Squeezed Kenyan poachers switch to al Shabaab charcoal racket - police Kenyan poachers squeezed by more effective wildlife protection have found work in the regional illegal charcoal trade run by the Islamist group al Shabaab to fund its terror-related activities, Kenyan and international police officials say. “The al Shabaab-controlled charcoal trade is emerging as the new security threat facing the country’s biodiversity,” Henry Wafula, a district commissioner in eastern Kenya, said in an interview with Thomson Reuters Foundation. Charcoal worth more than 140 million Kenya shillings (about $1.7 million) is being shipped out of eastern Kenya illegally every month, Wafula said. The lucrative trade involves cutting down and burning mature trees, particularly in protected wildlife areas. The loss of trees reduces cover for wildlife and worsens soil erosion. Thomson Reuters Foundation Al Shabab leader hits popular chord in call to oust Kenyans, Ethiopians In a recent article on the Daily Maverick, Simon Allison identifies the “surprisingly perceptive” core message of Al Shabab leader Ahmed Abdi Godane’s recent propaganda audio message. In his message, Mr. Godane urges his Somali comrades to throw out their Kenyan and Ethiopian occupiers. Mr. Allison notes that, although unsettling, Godane is, in certain respects, correct, and is tapping into widespread sentiments. Despite operating in Somalia under the authority of an African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) to rid the country of Al Shabab, Kenyan and Ethiopian troops are, in fact, occupying Somalia. Their goals are not altruistic, and are largely informed by their own national security and political considerations. CS Monitor Q&A: Somalia PM's zero tolerance policy Four years ago, al-Shabab controlled large parts of central and southern Somalia, including most of the capital, Mogadishu. Security forces have since pushed the armed group out of Somalia's major cities, but al-Shabab continues to launch periodic attacks, including an assault on the presidential palace in Mogadishu last month. Al Jazeera talks to Somalia's Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, whose government is struggling to provide security and tackle corruption. Al Jazeera Special Feature: Terrorism in Sinai The recent escalation of terrorist attacks in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula has received widespread international attention, but is not a new phenomenon. MEI’s History of Terrorism in Sinai, which includes an interactive timeline and map, follows terrorist activity - by location, method, target, and associated group - in this geopolitical hotspot over the last decade. Because of the nature of the security crisis in Sinai, this is not a comprehensive record, but a curated account of the most relevant attacks and events that have been reported to date. Middle East Institute Was Mohammed Morsi Really an Autocrat? In the months leading up to Egypt’s military coup on July 3, 2013, it became common to hear some variation of the following: President Mohammed Morsi was a new pharaoh, a dictator in the making, or a purveyor of a new, dangerous kind of fascism. Morsi, who was elected after the 2011 revolution that overthrew Hosni Mubarak, was undoubtedly incompetent and failed to govern inclusively. Yes, he was the wrong man at the wrong time, but was he really an autocrat? Or, put differently, was his one year of rule patently “undemocratic,” as so many Egyptian and even Western analysts claimed? The Atlantic Europe-Africa relations: Well-intentioned diplomatic disaster? The 4th EU-Africa Summit takes place in Brussels on 2-3 April. For months, there seemed to be a cascade of challenges that have, at different times, threatened the holding of the summit. Starting with tensions related to the push by the EU to force African countries to sign Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), the source of the tension shifted to the issue of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the case against the Kenyan leadership. Diplomatic issues have also coloured the pre-summit preparations after the EU announced that it has not invited Omar al-Bashir of Sudan and representatives from the Sahrawi Arab Republic, a member of the African Union, due to Morocco's participation at the summit. Now, just few days before the summit, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has announced that he will boycott it due to the failure of the EU to grant a visa to his wife. Al Jazeera ECOWAS states refuse to sign partnership deal with EU The Economic Community of West African States has once again refused to sign the Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union, a Ghanian media reported on Monday. The media report said the refusal was contained in a communique issued at the end of the 44th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government of the ECOWAS Authority held in Yamoussoukro, Cote d’Ivoire on Saturday. It said some states found issues with technical matters about the agreement, compelling the heads of state and government to shelve the signing of the deal. This was in spite of the fact that West African leaders had reaffirmed their strong commitment to the agreement and endorsed its conclusion in principle. The Punch I signed anti-gay law to reaffirm Uganda’s sovereignty - Museveni President Museveni yesterday told a rally of supporters of the Anti-Homosexuality Act that he endorsed the law to reaffirm Uganda’s sovereignty. The President said he did not approve of agitation by foreign powers against the new law. Mr Museveni said the West have a wrong justification of homosexuality. He explained that besides the Bible being against the act, even long ago among African cultures homosexuals were referred to as ekifiire (walking dead). “I want to thank honourable (David) Bahati and his group. I didn’t pay attention because I was involved in other sectors and little did I know it was a big issue. However, when big countries started giving us orders, I don’t like orders, especially from outside and I don’t know why these people became preachers for others?” Mr Museveni stated. Daily Monitor Another year of operations authorised for UN Force Intervention Brigade Forty-eight hours after SA National Defence Force (SANDF) Commander-in-Chief, President Jacob Zuma, confirmed South Africa’s continued commitment to the UN Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) in the DRC, the world body said the brigade would remain operational until March 31, 2015. The South African contingent of the FIB would also be upped by six, bringing it to 1 351. The overall strength of military personnel in MONUSCO, the UN Organisation Stabilisation Mission in the DRC, stands at 19 815. Other components of MONUSCO are 760 military observers, 391 police personnel and 1 050 “personnel of former police units,” according to a UN Department of Peacekeeping statement. DefenceWeb Should the United Nations Wage War to Keep Peace? Last year the UN adopted Resolution 2098, allowing its troops to attack armed groups in Congo and leading to the defeat of the vicious M23 militia. The Security Council has voted to renew the resolution, but the battle for Africa's heartland is far from over. [...] The offensive against the M23 was arguably the most aggressive military action the UN had undertaken in more than 50 years, since its first foray in Congo. "This is a very significant chapter in the history of the UN," Russ Feingold, President Barack Obama's special envoy for the Great Lakes and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, told me. "It has a potential use for the future that is hugely important." Alan Doss, an English diplomat who led MONUSCO from 2007 to 2010, said the offensive "crosses the Rubicon" because "while we've done these kinds of actions before, they've been reactive and short term. We haven't been sent out to defeat an armed force." National Geographic Defence minister breaks down SA’s African adventures With elections round the corner, it seems our politicians have no shortage of good news stories to tell. Defence minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula was the latest to put the positive spin machine to the test, this time on the subject of South Africa’s peacekeeping adventures on the African continent. Turns out we do a lot of peacekeeping – and it’s all good, all of the time. She may have forgotten to mention one or two inconvenient truths, however. Daily Maverick Welcome to Bangui International: Reflections of a psychologist in the CAR GAIL WOMERSLEY is a South African psychologist who just returned from six months in the Central African Republic, where she worked primarily with Doctors Without Borders staff members to help them deal with the trauma and devastation they were witnessing on a daily basis. This is her account of arriving in Bangui, and of an average working day in the capital. Daily Maverick Botching North Africa The United States government is putting another alliance at risk—this time with Morocco, which is a little like screwing up Canada. The White House is partly to blame, but the main culprit here is the State Department, the one institution that should be the least likely to drop the ball diplomatically since managing diplomatic relations is its job. Morocco’s main foreign policy problem is its Cold War with next-door Algeria which backs the Polisario—a communist guerilla army hatched by Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, and Moammar Qaddafi. The Polisario claims the Western Sahara region in the south of Morocco, vacated by Spanish imperialists the same week its long-time dictator General Franco finally died in 1975. Most Americans have never heard of the Western Sahara, but wrapping up this holdover conflict from the Cold War is at the top of Morocco’s agenda, and there’s no excuse for the State Department—and especially its diplomats in Morocco—to blow it off like everyone stateside. World Affairs Journal US, Moroccan military personnel refine escalation-of-force tactics during African Lion 14 Royal Moroccan Armed Forces soldiers and a joint-contingent of U.S. military police personnel, including U.S. Marines from 2nd Law Enforcement Battalion, U.S. soldiers and airmen, shared tactics and techniques for nonlethal weapons enforcement and escalation-of-force operations during African Lion 14 in Tifnit Training Area, Morocco. “It’s a very good training opportunity and different than working with our [other coalition] partners,” said Sgt. Christian A. Jensen, a military policeman from 2nd Law Enforcement Battalion. The six-day military-to-military engagement refined techniques in the topics of: escalation of force; familiarization of nonlethal weapons employment; and non-combative hand-to-hand techniques. Marines.mil Tanzania’s Transformation and Vision 2025: Governing Economic Growth for Social Gain Tanzania’s reputation as the sleeping giant of East Africa is shifting, along with its regional and international influence. The government’s ambition to reach middle-income status by 2025 could be supported by recent natural gas finds, but success will depend on ensuring that natural resources are strategically harnessed to ensure inclusive growth. Tanzania’s progress through constitutional reform, the conduct of its 2015 elections, the growth of its institutions and its ability to engage its young population will be determining factors in the country’s future course. President Kikwete will discuss his vision for a middle-income Tanzania, his country’s regional role and the potential for Tanzania to become a regional hub grounded in strong economic growth and good governance. Chatham House Chad troops defend actions in C. African Republic The African peacekeeping mission in Central African Republic on Monday defended Chadian soldiers who had killed more than 30 civilians over the weekend, saying the troops had come under attack from Christian militants and were merely defending themselves. However, the response from Gen. Martin Tumenta Chomu was unlikely to dampen the mounting anger toward the Muslim Chadian forces, who are bitterly despised by Bangui’s Christian majority. Already some civilians were calling on the Christian fighters to step up their attacks on all Muslims following the deaths. The Washington Post Malians Show Dramatic Leap in Confidence The return of democracy and peace to much of Mali has generated a complete turnaround in public confidence in the country's future, according to a new opinion survey. Afrobarometer, the leading continent-wide researcher of African public opinion, says that a survey in southern Mali in December 2012 – following a military takeover of the government, the seizure of the north by insurgents, an attack on a civilian president and the arrest of the prime minister – showed that only one in four people believed the country was headed in the right direction. allAfrica Knowledge is Power: World Bank to Chart Africa's Minerals in 'Billion Dollar Map' Last month, the World Bank announced an ambitious new project aimed at helping African governments earn a better price for their natural resources and accelerate the pace of mining across the continent. Dubbed the 'Billion Dollar Map' for its meteoric price tag, the decade-long initiative will scour a century of historical research into the continent’s mineral makeup and collate it in a public database. The project will then finance governments to conduct exploration to fill in the gaps. Think Africa Press There's simply no case for banning khat Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, are of course harmful, whatever their legal status, and our aim should be to reduce the harm caused. I've argued strongly for reform, and an end to the failed war on drugs. I think the general opinion in the UK is heading that way, albeit slowly. There is a specific decision to be made right now, however, about a substance called khat. This is a leaf traditionally chewed by people from the Horn of Africa. In the UK, communities from that area still chew it, particularly Somalis, but also Ethiopians, Kenyans and Yemenis among others. It's a mild stimulant – roughly on a par with a strong cup of coffee. It is not considered particularly addictive, and there's no clear evidence that it causes either physical or social harms. It is imported perfectly legally, and taxes are paid on it, to the tune of £12.8m each year. The Guardian In E.Africa, the role of First Lady has evolved over the years Inevitably, to become a First Lady is to step into a role that is subject to public scrutiny; whether that role is formal or informal. Some First Ladies have found themselves in the news for all the wrong reasons — lavish holidays and shopping sprees abroad, corruption and/or doing everything possible to ensure their husbands remain in power. Imelda Marcos, former First Lady of the Philippines for example, was infamous for her glitzy display of wealth, collecting more than 1,000 pairs of shoes, and is even quoted as saying: “I was born ostentatious. They will list my name in the dictionary someday. They will use Imeldific to mean ostentatious extravagance.” Africa Review The ever changing Arab and American media [...] In recent years and after long neglect, the U.S. has discovered and even courted the “New Arab Media,” best represented by the proliferation of influential satellite television stations in order to reach out to millions of admittedly critical, angry, not to mention hostile Arab public opinion, particularly in the East. At the same time, the American coverage of the Arab world has become more nuanced, and the Arab coverage of the United State has become more sophisticated, although both could and should do better. At the time I began my career as a print journalist for Arab media in Washington more than 30 years ago, American officials treated most Arab newspapers understandably as mouthpieces for their autocratic governments to serve as mobilization tools in their hands. Al Arabiya

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  • Program Calendar

    The Africa Center is the pre-eminent Department of Defense institution for strategic security studies, research, and outreach in Africa. The Africa Center engages African partner states and institutions through rigorous academic and outreach programs that build strategic capacity and foster long-term, collaborative relationships. Download the FY2010 Program Calendar.

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  • Africa Center Topical Outreach Program

    TOPS [PDF]

    Description

    The Africa Center’s Community Chapter Topical Outreach Program initiative is a flexible, light-footprint approach to deepen Africa Center relationships with ACSS communities of interest (referred to as “Community Members” by ACSS), expand on efforts to reach non-traditional audiences in Africa, and expand on Africa Center presence on the continent in countries not visited through other ACSS programs. The ACSS Community Outreach and Public Affairs (COPA) directorate will travel to selected African countries to conduct topical programs for ACSS communities of interest. Content of topical programs focuses on U.S. policy and contemporary African security issues.

    Audience

    Past participants of ACSS programs, their invited guests, and invitees from American Embassies in the visited countries.

    Concept Paper

    Contact

    David Sims, Interim Director



  • African Defense Attaché Program

     



  • African Union - Maritime Safety and Security

     

    Description

    Culminating African Union summit of MSS; enabling implementation of renewed nation-specific maritime security policies.

    Audience

    African officials and participants who are responsible for maritime-related portfolios, or have worked on maritime-related policies or programs joined by US Government and EU officials whose portfolios include cooperation with the AU on maritime issues.

    Concept Paper

    Contact

    Assis Malaquius



  • Civil-Military Relations Workshop

     

    Description

    Develop democratic processes, rule of law, and good governance to ensure civil-military cooperation for human security.

    Audience

    Concept Paper

    Contact

    Mathurin C. Houngnikpo



  • Colloquium on African Elections with National Democratic Institute

    Description

    Aims to examine the successes of Ghana’s recent successful electoral process. Combined with other recent African election experiences, the event will identify some best practices and lessons learned that could help mitigate violence surrounding upcoming elections and strengthen the legitimacy of these processes.

    Audience

    Senior military and civilian officials from around Africa; representatives from the African Union and other regional bodies; African media experts; and NGO representatives.

    Concept Paper

    Colloquim on African Elections [PDF]

    Contact

    Joseph Siegle



  • Community Leadership Conference

     

    Description

    This conference will bring key Africa Center community members from one sub-region together to share insights on important security issues, discuss strategies to enhance security cooperation around the region, and help the Africa Center remain relevant to the wider security community in Africa. The conference will also provide a forum for chapter leaders to exchange ideas on and best practices for the Community Chapter Program and on how to improve the effectiveness of their programs.

    Audience

    Community Chapter leaders

    Concept Paper

    Community Leadership Conference [PDF]

    Contact

    Clifford H. Bernath



  • Counter Narcotics Trafficking in West Africa

     

    Description

    Highlight threats posed by drug smuggling and explore the impact on democratization, anti-corruption, development and public health efforts within West Africa.

    Audience

    Participants from West Africa;, the United States; Europe, notably France, Portugal, and the United Kingdom; and key international organizations.

    Concept Paper

    Counter Narcotics Trafficking in West Africa [PDF]

    Contact

    Mathurin C. Houngnikpo



  • Counter-Terrorism Finance Workshop

     

    Description

    The workshop is the fourth in a series that will provide participants with updated information on trends and developments concerning terrorism in Africa, and build their capacity in areas critical to the implementation of the African Union (AU) Plan of Action on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism.

    Audience

    African civilian and military officials from Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Concept Paper

    Contact

    Andre Le Sage



  • ECOWAS Strategic Training

     

    Description

    Annual transformative series addressing strategic issues to implement conflict prevention, good governance protocols, and mobilize resources to synchronize security sector reform.

    Audience

    Senior civilian and military officials from both the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) headquarters and member states.

    Concept Paper

    Contact

    Mathurin C. Houngnikpo



  • Introduction to African Security Issues

     

    Description

    This is an introductory-level seminar designed to provide a basic understanding of political, social, military, and economic aspects of security in Africa and to introduce major U.S. policies and programs regarding Africa.

    Audience

    U.S. government officials with little or no background in African security issues but who have duties/responsibilities relating to Africa.

    News and Course Documents

    Concept Paper (Oct. 2009) [PDF]

    Program Schedule

    Contact

    Andre Le Sage



  • Managing Security Resources in Africa

     

    Description

    The seminar will provide a capacity-building opportunity for practitioners and policymakers responsible for resource management in Africa’s security sector.

    Audience

    Mid-level military and civilian officials with resource management responsibility from Southern African countries.

    Concept Paper

    Managing Security Resources in Africa [PDF]

    Contact

    Assis Malaquius

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  • Maritime Safety and Security with Brenthurst

     

    Description

    Evaluate the multidimensional nature of maritime insecurity, assess implications, and develop collaborative strategic frameworks at the regional and sub-regional level to confront common threats.

    Audience

    African officials and participants who are responsible for maritime-related portfolios, or have worked on maritime-related policies or programs joined by US Government and EU officials whose portfolios include cooperation with the AU on maritime issues.

    Concept Paper

    Maritime Safety and Security with Brenthurst [PDF]

    Contact

    Assis Malaquius



  • Next Generation of African Military Leaders Course

    Description

    This program is designed to provide the next generation of African military leaders with practical and effective tools they can draw upon to contribute to their nations’ security and development.

    Audience

    Mid-level military officers, primarily majors and lieutenant colonels, from across Africa with significant command or staff responsibilities and recognized leadership potential.

    Contact

    Mathurin C. Houngnikpo



  • Senior Leader Seminar

     

    Description

    The seminar is intended to focus on a comprehensive definition of security that reflects African realities and challenges by accounting for both human and traditional security concerns, provide participants with an understanding of the scope and nature of current and emerging security threats confronting Africa, and democratically addressing Africa’s future security challenges.

    Audience

    One military and one civilian official from each participating African country, as well as representatives from Europe, the United States, international and regional organizations, and civil society.

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    Introduction to African Security Issues Seminar

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    This is an introductory-level seminar designed to provide a basic understanding of political, social, military, and economic aspects of security in Africa and to introduce major U.S. policies and programs regarding Africa.

    IASI 6-8 October, 2009:

    Participants in the ACSS Introduction to Africa Security Issues Seminar - 6-8 October, 2009

    Participants in the ACSS Introduction to Africa Security Issues Seminar - 6-8 October, 2009



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  • 2009 Security Sector Engagement Photos

     

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    Discussing how to improve civilian-military cooperation to promote democratic governance and stability in West Africa are, from left, Michael E. Hess, Vice President for Development and Stability Operations at MPRI; Dr. Brad Gutierrez, Academic Chair of Security Studies at the Africa Center; Dave Peterson, Senior Director of the Africa Program of the National Endowment for Democracy, who moderated the program; and Colonel Birame Diop of the Partners Center in Dakar, Senegal.

    Discussing how to improve civilian-military cooperation to promote democratic governance and stability in West Africa are, from left, Michael E. Hess, Vice President for Development and Stability Operations at MPRI; Dr. Brad Gutierrez, Academic Chair of Security Studies at the Africa Center; Dave Peterson, Senior Director of the Africa Program of the National Endowment for Democracy, who moderated the program; and Colonel Birame Diop of the Partners Center in Dakar, Senegal.

    Mr. Hess addresses the definition of human security by illustrating the U.S. military’s role in development activities.
    Mr. Hess addresses the definition of human security by illustrating the U.S. military’s role in development activities.
    Dr. Gutierrez urges the audience to remember to see the symmetry of traditional security and human security rather than seeing them as competitors in a zero-sum-game.
    Dr. Gutierrez urges the audience to remember to see the symmetry of traditional security and human security rather than seeing them as competitors in a zero-sum-game.
    Colonel Diop stresses the nature of security sector engagement on issues of human security and social development in Senegal.
    Colonel Diop stresses the nature of security sector engagement on issues of human security and social development in Senegal.

     

     View photos from other ACSS events